lens and cats Flashcards Preview

ChM > lens and cats > Flashcards

Flashcards in lens and cats Deck (186):
1

mittendorf dot is from what embryonic structure

hyaloid artery

2

epicapsular star is from what embryonic structure?

tunica vasculosa lentis

3

Peter's anomaly via what mechanism?

anterior segment dysgenesis/ failure of lens vesicle and surface ectoderm (cornea)at around 33 weeks

4

Pete's anomaly is associate with what gene defects

PAX6, PITX2, FOXC1

5

Peter's anomaly is associated with what defects?

-central/paracentral leukoma (corneal opacity)
-thinning/absent endothelium/descemet's
-Iris sticks to cornea (type 1); iris sticks to lens (type 2)

-anterior cortical cataracts
-microspherophakia
-anteriorly displaced lens

6

What is microspherophakia? It's associated with what condition(s)?

whole equator of lens can be seen when fully dilated... leading to high refractive power thus high myopia

-primarily Weill-Marchesani syndrome
-Peter's anomaly
-Alport's syndrome
-Lowe's syndrome
- Marfan's syndrome

7

what is a feared complication of microspherophakia? what can exacerbate this? what can treat this complication?

Acute angle closure glaucoma.
-Exacerbated by miotics
-Treat with cycloplegics-->to pull the lens posteriorly

8

Congenital aphakia:
what is primary aphakia vs secondary aphakia?

Primary aphakia is when lens placode does not form
Secondary aphakia is when the forming lens is absorbed.

9

What is aniridia? unilat or bilat?

no iris (partial or whole)
almost always bilateral

10

nonhereditary aniridia... what two conditions do you have to worry about?

what's a common complication of aniridia?

Wilm's tumor
WAGR complex-- wilm's, aniridia, genitourinary, mental Retardation

-early cataract formation

11

Definition of congenital (aka infantile) cataracts

seen at birth or within 1 year of birth

12

Most common type of congenital cataract? what are its features? usual pattern of inheritance?

also called zonular.
It has layer of opacification surrounding the nucleus and itself is surrounded by clear cortex.
May have adjacent horseshoe shaped opacity called "riders"

-autosomal dominant

13

Types of congenital cataracts

lamellar, polar, sutural, cerulean, membranous, coronary, nuclear, capsular, complete

14

features of anterior polar cataracts. Mode of inheritance. Clinical significance?

-Anterior polar--aka subcapsule and involving cortex.
-autosomal dominant
-usually bilateral, non progressive, no impairment of vision
but could cause anisometropia. sometimes seen with anterior lenticonus, persistent pupillary membranes, microophthalmia

15

sutural cataracts are also called what?

Stellate cataracts

16

features of posterior polar cataracts?
Mode of inheritance.
Features of hereditary vs sporadic.

Usually larger and more clinically significant than anterior polar cataracts.
-Associated with capsular fragility
-Autosomal dominant. Inherited is usually bilateral versus sporadic can be unilateral and associated with persistent tunica vasculosa lentil and lenticonus

17

Sutural cataracts.
Features?
Mode of inheritance?
Clinical relevance?

opacities along the fetal suture lines.
Autosomal dominant
Usually not of clinical significance

18

Features of coronary cataracts?

a club shaped cortical opacity usually at the periphery and can't be seen unless dilated.
-autosomal dominant inheritance

19

Cerulean cataracts are also called what? Features of cerulean cataracts?

Blue dot cataracts.
small bluish opacities on the lens CORTEX.
usually not clinically significant and non progressive

20

Medical indications for cataract surgery. (4)

-obscured view to back of eye in order to assess for other conditions such as AMD, DR...etc
-dislocated lens
-phacolytic glaucoma, pharmacomorphic glaucoma (due to intumescent lens --rapid thickened--
-phacoantigenic uveitis

21

Most common indication for cataract surgery?

elective desire to improve vision

22

What is the key clinical association with congenital nuclear cataracts?
What is a feared complications?

congenital nuclear cataracts tend to be associated with micro-ophthalmic eyes.
Increased risk of aphasic glaucoma (which is the most common long term complication s/p congenital CE)

23

Capsular cataracts.
features?
clinical significance

involves the anterior lens capsule and epithelium. DOES NOT involve the cortex. Protrudes in to the AC?
Generally not clinically significant

24

What is it called when the entire lens is opacified in a <1 year old?

Complete cataract

25

What is a membranous congenital cataract? Clinical significance?

lens protein resorption from lens (often s/p trauma) allowing anterior and posterior capsules to fuse.
Usually clinically very significant.

26

Why is CE in congenital rubella infection patients associated with more inflammation?

Rubella virus lives within the lens fibers and live virus can persist 3 years s/p birth. disruption of fibers cause viral release.

27

What kind of cataracts are associated with congenital rubella infection?

Dense nuclear cataracts
Complete cataract (cortex sometimes liquified)

28

Congenital Rubella syndrome:
-associations? (5)

-microophthalmia
-Corneal clouding (transient or permanent)
-cataracts (nuclear or complete)
-glaucoma
-diffuse pigmentary retinopathy

(of note: usually glaucoma and cataracts are not simultaneously in the same eye)

29

what is ectopia lentis

displacement of lens--can be congenital, developmental, or acquired.

30

what is the difference between lens subluxation vs dislocation (luxation)

Subluxation implies displaced but still in the pupillary space.
Dislocation implies complete displacement from the pupillary space indicating disruption of zonules.

31

Symptoms of lens subluxation?

decreased VA, monocular diplopia, high astigmatism, iridodonesis.

32

what is the most common cause of lens dislocation?

trauma

33

What are non traumatic causes of dislocation?

Congenital glaucoma
Homocysteinuria
Aniridia
Marfan's

--less common causes: weill-marchensani, ehlers dans, hyperlysinemia, sulfite oxidase deficiency, simple ectopic lentil as inherited.

34

Marfan syndrome
-mode of inheritance? genetic aberrance?
- ocular manifestation?
-Complications to be on the look out for due to ocular findings?
-Cardiovascular associations?
-musculoskeletal associations

-autosomal dominant, mutation of fibrillar gene on Chr 15.
-ectopia lentis (usually supratemprally) bilateral symmetric with elongated zones. axial myopia
- increase risk of RD due to myopia; and angle closure glaucoma and amblyopia, poor accommodation due to lens subluxation/dislocation.
-MVP, aortic root dilatation
-long limbs, arachnodactyly

35

CE in Marfan's syndrome is associated with what complications? (2)

vitreous loss, RD

36

Homocystinuria
-Mode of inheritance?
-what is the disease?
- Systemic manifestations?
- Ocular manifestations?

-autosomal recessive
-elevated homocysteine and methionine.
-seizures, osteoporosis, cognitive impairment, tall, light colored hair, VTEs
-bilat symmetric lens dislocations (30% at birth; 80+% are affected by 15) usually infranasal (zonules are high in cysteine)

37

How to treat homocystinuria?

low methionine diet,
supplement cysteine diet and vitamin B6

38

Clinical features of hyperlysinemia?

ectopia lentis, muscular hypotony, cognitive impairment

39

What is the gene identified to be associated with cortical cataracts?

EPHA2--age related cortical cataracts

40

What is the number one risk factor for developing cataracts (age related non syndromic)

genes!

41

What are the features of ectopia lentis et papillae?

other ocular associations?

asymmetric eccentric dislocation of lens in the opposite direction of abnormal pupil (which is eccentric and irregular)... hard to dilate.
-Associated with enlarged corneal diameter, atrophic pupils with transillumination defects, cataract, RD, axial myopia,

42

persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) is also known as what?

PHPV (persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous)

43

three types of age related cats

nuclear, cortical, and sub capsular

44

what does intumescence mean?

swollen and enlarged cataract--watch out for angle closure

45

What are Wedl Cells?

The abnormally swollen/enlarged cells in PSC when epithelial lens cells migrate from equator in to the visual axis.

46

what are the ocular side effects of corticosteroids?

elevated IOP, PSCs

47

Does slow release intraocular steroids (subconj and intravitreal) lower risk of IOP elevation and PSCs?

no

48

ocular manifestations of amiodarone? (2)

verticillata, optic neuropathy

49

what class of drug is chlorpromazine and thioridazine? what kind of visual side effect does it cause?

these are phenothiazines (psychotropic meds).
can cause pigment deposition to anterior lens... usually not visually significant.

50

What is a ocular complication of anticholinesterase medications? what are examples of this class of med?

It causes cataracts (starting with vacuoles then cortical and nuclear opacification)
-pilocarpine and thiophate iodide (for echo)

51

cataract incidence with statin is increased with concurrent use of what medication?

erythromycin

52

what ocular side effect does Tamoxifen has?

crystalline maculopathy (NOT cats)

53

what is a vossius ring? what does it signify?

imprint of pigment in the shape of the pupil to the anterior lens. Indicates prior blunt trauma

54

What is a rosette cataract?

Rose like cataract s/p blunt trauma involving visual axis and posterior capsule. Mild ones can resolve.

55

What surgical procedure is associated with nuclear cataracts? What are other procedures associated with cats?

trans pars plana vitrectomy

intravitreous injections, trabeculectomy, penetrating keratoplasty

56

Which population is more susceptible to lens damage and delayed cats from ionizing radiation?

young patients as they have more actively replicating lens cells.

57

siderosis bulbi is caused by what?

iron containing FB

58

Siderosis bulbi features? long term implications?

yellow colored iron depositions in the iris, trabecular meshwork, lens epithelium/cortical fibers... can lead to cortical cataracts and retinal dysfunction long term.

59

What is a sunflower cataract?

Chalcosis: aka copper deposition to various basement membranes via intraocular FB.

60

What is chalcosis

intraocular FB, deposition of copper to descent's, anterior lens capsule. Copper intraocular FB can also cause severe inflammatory reaction and necrosis

61

characteristics of electrical injury induced cataracts?

likely when pt's head is involved in the electrical current.
First anterior vacuoles are seen in the lens. then linear opacities in anterior sub capsule cortex.

62

what's more likely to involve intraocular abnormalities? acid injuries or alkali injuries?

alkali

63

what are likely injuries from alkali chemical injuries?

injuries to cornea, conj, iris, and lens leading to cats.

64

what are two causes of verticillate?

Amiodarone, fabry's

65

What is a snowflake cataract? what population is it associated with?

-Associated with diabetics--generally type I, young, and uncontrolled.
-It's a axial rapidly developing sub capsular and cortical cataract that has the appearance of a snow flake.

66

what are the three lens abnormalities associated with an "oil droplet" appearance"? which two are similar?

nuclear sclerosis and galactosemia --similar
posterior lenticonus is different as it casts an oil droplet appearance on the red reflex.

67

What are the three enzyme deficiencies responsible for galactosemia?

galactose-1-phosphate uritidyl transferase (Gal-1-PUT) is classic galactosemia
galactokinase, and UDP-galactose 4 epimerase

68

how do you confirm classic galactosemia?

presence of galactose in the urine

69

What are the systemic and ocular signs and symptoms of galactosemia?

malnutrition, hepatomegaly, jaundice, cataract development (NSC and cortical from deep out)

70

What is the treatment for galactosemia?

elimination of milk from diet

71

what do hypocalcemia (tetanic) cataracts look like? laterality? can be caused by what?

punctate iridescent opacities in the cortical layers separated by zones of clear lens. bilateral usually
-can be associated with parathyroid/thyroid surgery

72

high copper related ocular abnormalities? (Wilson's disease)

Kaiser Fleischer ring (descemet's) and sun flower cataracts (usually not visually significant.

73

where is kaiser fleischer ring located

descemet's membrane of the cornea.

74

polychromatic iridescent crystals of the lens are associated with what disorder? what are these crystals?what other ocular abnormalities do these patients have?

myotonic dystrophy; cholesterol crystals; ptosis, facial musculature weakness, progressive cataracts

75

myotonic dystrophy. systemic signs and ocular signs

-impaired relaxation of muscles, cardiac conduction Abel, cognitive disability, frontal balding
-polychromatic iridescent crystal cataracts, ptosis, facial weakness

76

what life style modifications can be used to prevent cataracts?

stop smoking, drinking, and wear sunglasses

77

women who take vitamin A are at increased risk for what?

hip fractures

78

smokers who take what supplement are at risk of lung cancer, mortality from lung cancer, and CVD?

beta carotene

79

episodes of dehydration due to diarrhea may cause what ocular abnormality?

cataracts

80

what kind of cataracts are associated with Fuch's heterochromic uveitis? why is this type of uveitis associated with favorable prognosis?

cortical; it usually doesn't involve posterior synechiae and usually steroids aren't needed.

81

Fuch's heterchronic uveitis can cause cataracts. What kind of intraoperative complication is associated with this condition?

AC hemorrhage.

82

what kind of cataracts are associated with uveitis in general? why?

PSCs because of steroid use; anterior capsular due to posterior synechiae

83

what changes to the lens are associated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy?

transient myopic shift; cataracts have been documented but not common.

84

what environmental risk factor is associated with pseudo exfoliation syndrome?

lifetime UV exposure

85

What is pseudo exfoliation syndrome? where do the stuff deposits?

systemic deposition of fibrillogranular matrix material to various organs... cornea, iris/ciliary/trabucular meshwork, lens/zonules, anterior hyaloid face

86

Clinical consequences of pseudoexfoliation syndrome?

-capsular/zonular fragility
-iris atrophy, poor dilation of pupils
-open angle glaucoma

87

atopic dermatitis is associated with what?

anterior sub capsular cats

88

what is phacoantigenic uveitis?

lens antigen s/p trauma or incomplete CE... creating inflammation. Can also affect the other eye.

89

what is phacolytic glaucoma?

mature/hypermature cataracts--lens material leak out and are engulfed by macrophages.... then this debris plug up the trabecular meshwork.

90

How can you differentiate phacolytic glaucoma with phacoantigenic glaucoma

phacoantigenic has KPs.

91

How to treat phacolytic glaucoma?

lower pressure, treat inflammation with steroids, surgery to remove cat

92

cataract related glaucoma before extraction? what two types should you thinking of?

phacomorphic; phacolytic

93

cataract related glaucoma s/p extraction? what two types should you think of?

phacoantigenic, retained lens material glaucoma.

94

what is glaucomflecken?

It's anterior lens opacification s/p episode of marked IOP elevation; epithelial necrosis and cortical degeneration

95

what eye lid conditions can predispose to endophthalmitis?

acne rosacea, severe blepharitis

96

congenital posterior polar opacity is associated with what intraoperative complication for CE?

capsular rupture

97

what are the potential complications of retrobulbar anesthesia?

retrobulbar hemorrhage, toxicity to extra ocular muscles, optic nerve damage, globe rupture, IV injection resulting in arrhythmias and seizures

98

what is peribulbar anesthesia? how does it compare with retrobulbar?

It's introduced external to muscle cone and underneath the tenon capsule. It's LESS good for both akinesia and anesthesia as compared to retrobulbar

99

what are the disadvantages of topical anesthesia being used for cataract surgery?

lack of akinesia--should be used for cooperative patients who won't look away from the light.
Blepharospasms

100

Types of anesthesia that can be used for cats surg

-Retrobulbar
-peribulbar
-topical/intracameral with sedation
-Sub tenon
-facial nerve block
-general anesthesia

101

what are disadvantages of multifocal IOLs?

-Reduced contrast sensitivity
-glare
-less good best corrected VA

102

causes of post op corneal edema after CE?

-mechanical trauma intraop
chemical injury
IOL related inflammation
endothelial contact
increased IOL
membranous ingrowth
Brown McLean syndrome
corneal endothelial disease

103

floppy iris syndrome predispose patients to what intraoperatively?

iridialysis

104

risk factors intraoperative iridialysis (6)

poor wound construction
shallow anterior chamber
multiple entries and exits of instruments through wound
iris prolapse
surgical manipulation of iris
floppy iris syndrome

105

what type of cataracts are seen in retinitis pigmentosa

sub capsular

106

what percent of lens glucose pass through the TCA cycle

3%

107

patients with hx of herpetic corneal disease should avoid what topical eye medication?

steroids as they can reactivate the disease

108

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. What 2 things should you check before giving.

creatinine, sulfa allergy

109

if there's an area of damaged/missing zonules during a cataract surgery. what plan of action can you consider?

Capsule tension ring (CTR) to support the capsule while phaco is done

110

hyperbaric oxygen is associated with what kind of cats?

nuclear

111

what kind of IOL is associated with increased risk of anterior capsular phimosis?

silicone

112

what are risk factors for anterior capsular phimosis s/p CE/IOL?

anything with zonular instability..
marfans
pseudo exfoliation

113

cataract surgery can lower IOL by how much?

10-30%

114

histologically what are PSCs?

posterior migration of epithelial cells

115

whats the time frame for endophthalmitis post cat surgery

3-10 days

116

time frame of developing toxic ant set syndrome?

hours post CE

117

what is the most common serious intraoperative complication of phaco CE

posterior capsule rupture

118

what are the top complications after CE?

corneal edema, PCO development, CME, retained lens fragments.

119

what are treatment options for corneal edema post op?

hyperosmolar agents (muro), corticosteroids, aqueous suppressants.

120

what is the general time frame for corneal edema to resolve post CE?

4-6 weeks if it's just normal post op swelling

121

what is Brown McLean syndrome

peripheral corneal swelling s/p CE that usually only starts inferiorly and progresses circumferentially. May have inferior pigment and central gutattae.

122

what are risk factors for corneal melting after CE?

dry eyes/sjogrens, rheumatic conditions

123

post op s/p CE use of ketorolac has been associated with what complication?

corneal melting

124

corneal melting. treatment options?

topical lubrication, punctal plugs, lateral tarrsorhaphy

125

what is the cause of toxic anterior segment syndrome? what are sx/signs on presentation

it's inflammatory reaction caused by introduction of toxic substance to the AC.
pain, decreased vision, redness, hypopyon. Limited to the AC and usually pain is less than endophthalmitis. can occur hours post op vs endophtahlmitis usually occurs 3-10 days.

126

"positive vitreous pressure" pushing forward to decrease AC depth is associated with what type of patients?

patients with thick necks or have COPD/pulm diseases.

127

what is Fluid Misdirection Syndrome?

It's where the BSS seeps to the posterior segment/vitreous and causes volume exapansion leading to flat AC.

128

how to manage fluid misdirection syndrome? (3)

give gentle pressure to iris/lens, IV mannitol infusion, pars plana take out of the fluid/vitreous

129

CE post op hypotony with shallow AC differential?

wound leakage,
choroidal detachment

130

differential for post op (CE) IOP increase?

-retained viscoelastic (OVD) if 4-6 hrs post op
-retained lens material
-acute angle closure due to pupillary block/ciliary block, pigment dispersion, epithelial ingrowth, neovascularization, hyphen/blood, ghost cell glaucoma
-uveitis
-endophthalmitis/TASS
-steroid use

131

Floppy iris syndrome --what are the triad?

1. billowing iris
2. progressive miosis
3. iris prolapse

132

floppy iris syndrome is associated with what class of meds?

alpha 1 antagonists (tamsulosin, ) and nonselective alpha agonists --terazosin, doxazosin, alfuzosin, silodosin, CHLORPROMAZINE, LABETALOL

133

complications associated with floppy iris?

-iris trauma/lysis
-posterior capsule rupture
-vitreous loss

134

what is Lens-Iris Diaphram Retropulsion syndrome? (LIDRS) who is at risk/cause? what are complications? how to manage it?

-intraop deepening of the AC due to regression of lens and pupil leading to reverse pupillary block.
-High infusion pressure causes this, and high myopes s/p vitrectomy are at highest risk
-This causes stress on the zonules
-gentle pressure to separate the pupil from the lens.

135

which individuals are more prone to post surgical inflammation? 7

-iris manipulated during surgery
-Children
-DM
-long term use of miotics
-pseudoexfoliation
-pigment dispersion
-prior surgery

136

what organisms can cause post op chronic uveitis?

p acnes and staph epi

137

signs of retained lens material?

increased IOP (if blocking angle)
uveitis/vitreous opacities
corneal edema

138

How to manage retained lens material?

start with antiinflammation: Steroids and NSAIDS, and IOP lowering.
Consider surgery but not always needed.

139

is retained cortex or nucleus s/p CE more tolerated?

cortex.

140

If there's retained lens material in the vitreous.. when is the best time to do vitrectomy?

within 1-2 weeks. less complications as compared to delayed surgery.

141

complications associated with vitreous loss?

RD, CME, and endophthalmitis (vitreous acts as a wick and pulls in stuff)

142

what can you stain the vitreous with for better visualization?

preserved or washed triamcinolone

143

what is the most common cause of intracapsular IOL dislocation?

pseudoexfoliation syndrome leading to zonular degradation.

144

whats the most common extracapsular cause of IOL dislocation?

inadequately sized IOL.

145

what is UGH syndrome?

uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome. Basically iris/ciliary body chaffing on IOL that is either decentered or single piece in the sulcus...

146

what kind of IOL is associated with UGH syndrome?

1 piece uniplana acrylic IOLs

147

What is an advantage of suturing IOL to pupil rather than sclera?

less chance of suture breakage. (which occurs 3-9 years after surgery usually)

148

complications associated with ACIOL?

iris tuck, UGH syndrome, corneal edema, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, pseudophacodonesis.

149

what are factors associated with pupillary capture?

anterior displacement of PCIOL optic. associated with nonagulated IOLs inciliary sulcus. or upside down placement of an angulated IOL

150

what are two things you can do to decrease chance of pupillary capture?

placing posteriorly angulated PCIOL
creating anterior capsulrrhexis smaller than lens optic

151

what is capsular block syndrome? and what are complications if untreated.

forward displacement of IOL/nucleus due to fluid accumulation in the posterior bag (such as during hydrodissection or due to OVD). This can cause shallowing of AC leading to posterior synechiae and glaucoma

152

how do you treat capsular block syndrome?

YAG either peripheral anterior capsule or posterior capsule to release the fluid.

153

what two types of IOLs (no longer inclinical use) are associated with Pseudophakic Bullous Keratopathy?

iris clip lenses
closed loop flexible ACIOLs.

154

in the event of unintended refractive error after CE/IOL what are 4 options?

1. glasses
2. IOL exchange
3. piggy back IOL
4. refractive surgery.

155

how does post op steroids/nsaids affect PCO development?

it doesn't

156

which kind of IOL material is most resistent to damage per YAG capsulotomy?

silicone

157

what are the complications of YAG capsulotomy?

elevated IOP
CME,
RD
Hyphema
damage/dislocation of IOL
corneal edema
corneal abrasion

158

two major complications of prolonged hyphema

elevated IOP and corneal staining.

159

what is the hallmark of endophthalmitis?

vitreous inflammation

160

clinical signs of expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage?

sudden loss of red reflex
incision gape
iris prolapse
expulsion of lens, vitreous and bright red blood

161

what factors are associated with increase chance of endophthalmitis?

DM
older
male
longer surgeries
vitreous loss
posterior capsular rupture
wound leak

162

what time frame is considered "acute endophthalmitis"

6 weeks

163

what are the most common acute endophthalmitis organisms?

staph epi, staph aureus, strep species

164

what are the most common chronic endophalmitis organisms?

p acnes, staph epi, fungi

165

How do you treat endophthalmitis with LP in that eye

biopsy/culture AC and vitreous. Start on fortified abx if doesn't delay referral to retina. Retina needs to do PPV

166

if endophthalmitis with HM or better VA...what should you do.

get cultures of AC or vitreous biopsy. Intravitreal abx (vanc 1g and caftaz 2.25mg. Also add cycloplegia and steroids.

167

what is Irvine-Glass syndrome?

CME s/p CE

168

CME is common post CE... what is classified as clinically significant CME?

vision reduction to 20/40 or worse.

169

when does post op CME usually show up? and when does it usually resolve if uncomplicated?

6-10 weeks post op it shows up and 95% will resolve in 3-12 months

170

which meds are associated with CME post op?

topical epinephrine and dipevfrin (for aphakic glaucoma)
-prostaglandin analogues cause reversible CME.

171

pre op risk factors for post op CME?

ERM, vitreomacular traction, DM, DR, previous CRVO, hx CME, retinitis pigments, uveitis.

172

How do you treat CME?

combo of ketorolac and prednisolone are better than either alone.
If this fails then sub tenon or intravitreal steroid injections, systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, or VEGF inhibitors

173

prolonged light exposure during CE could result in what?

CME, burn of RPE

174

What are strategies to minimize retinal light toxicity during CE?

minimize time
use oblique angles
filtering lights below wave length of 515nm
pupil shields

175

what would cause a myopic shift in a pt s/p CE (when vision immediately post op was 20/20?)

capsular contraction.

176

what would cause a hyperopic shift in pt s/p CE when vision immediately post op was 2020?

CME

177

what's the best way to asses macular function in patient with dense cataract?

Maddox rod. Mac disfunction may result in "breaks" in the rod lines

178

when do patients undergoing eye surgery have to stop anticoag

hx of suprachoroidal hemorrhage. consider stopping if doing retro bulbar anesthesia as well.

179

what's the mainstay treatment for MGD?

doxy, minocycline, tetracycline--saponify inspissated secretions

180

what should you do prior to capsulerrhexis if intumescent cataract?

pierce the ant capsule and suck out some milky cortex.

181

what should you be worried about for cat surgery if iris is abnormal

iris coloboma/corectopia are associated with zonular weakness/absence...consider capsule tension ring and/or iris hooks.

182

what is capsular block s/p CE/IOL? what refractive issue can it cause? how to treat?

anterior shift of PCIOL with distension of posterior bag. Causes myopic shift. do YAG to release fluid

183

What factor decrease chances of PCO? what increases it?

square haptic IOLs decrease PCO due to more force on the capsule and blocks epithelial migration. larger capsulharrexis causes wrinkles and PCO.

184

patients who has had refractive surgeries prior to cataract surgery-- likely to have what kind of refractive error after cataract surgery

hyperopic shift. should be observed before considering interventions

185

atopic dermatitis is associated with what kind of cataract?

anterior subcapsular

186

Lens-induce uveitis:

- three types

>phacoanalphylactic endophthalmitis

- severe granulomatous inflammation when the lens protein is exposed
- zonal granulomatous reaction surrounding the exposed lens material. The inflammation include neutrophils, epithelioid cells, macrophages and giant cells

>phacotoxic uveitis

- nongranulomatous inflammation when the lens protein is exposed.
- non-specific inflammation with lymphocytes, macrophages and occasional giant cells

>phacolytic glaucoma

- occurs when the hypermature cataract leaks out protein
- macrophages laden with eosinophilic lens materials are seen in the anterior chamber and the trabecular meshwork