Lesson 12 Grammar Flashcards Preview

Lessons 11-15 > Lesson 12 Grammar > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lesson 12 Grammar Deck (50):
1

To express obligation (I have to/do not have to; need to / do not need to) (Pres. & Fut.)

Sub ( ले ) inf. + पर्छ / पर्दैन

2

Past tense obligation (I had to/ did not have to; I needed to/did not need to)

Sub ( ले ) inf. + पर्यो / परेन

3

नै is used to express urgency; great necessity

v.s. + नै + पर्छ

4

म जानु पर्छ

I have to go

5

म जानै पर्छ

I really have to go; I must go.

6

मैले यो काम आज सिद्ध्याउनु पर्छ

I have to/need to/must finish this work today.

7

म भोलि काठमान्डू जानु पर्छ

I have to/will have to go to Kathmandu tomorrow.

8

(impersonal) नेपालमा काम गरको लागि नेपालि भासा सिक्नु पर्छ

One should learn Nepali to work in Nepal.

9

टाउको दुख्दा aspirin खानु पर्छ

One should take an aspirin when one's head hurts.

10

to express habitual Pres. & simple Fut. tense, use 3rd Pers. Sing. of हुनु

हुन्छा / हुदैन ( दै is nasal)

11

अहिले जाडो छ

It is cold now.

12

Decemberमा जाडो हुन्छा

It (always/habitually) cold in December.

13

आउने हप्ता जाडो हुन्छा

It will be cold next week.

14

In cases of "should" use:

पर्छ

15

In cases of "should NOT" use:

inf. + हुदैन (हु is nasal)

16

रक्सि खानु हुदैन

One should not drink alcohol.

17

Use of " ले " as with (manner/how one does something

______ले = with ______

18

म हातले खान्छु

I eat "with" my hand.

19

म सधै तातो पानीले नुहाउछु
.

I always bathe with hot water.

20

म अर्को हप्ता गाउमा हुन्छु

Next week, I will be in the village.

21

हाम्रो जाच कहिले हुन्छा ?

When will our test be?

22

म भित्र आए हुन्छा ?

Is it okay if I come in? May I come in?

23

हिन्दुहरुले गाइको मासु खान हुदैन

Hindus should not eat beef.

24

Pres. v.s. + न / नु हुन्छा

it's allowed; it's ok to do; you may do

25

यसरि खानु हुन्छा ?

Is it alright to eat like this?

26

past v.s. + एर

after, having done, and, with 'verb' ing

27

जुत्ता लगाएर

with shoes on

28

past v.s. + ए हुन्छा ?

may I/he/we; is it o.k.?; is it allowed?

29

म भित्र आए हुन्छा ?

May I come in?

30

हामि भित्र आए हुन्छा ?

May we come in?

31

तपाइँ भित्र आए हुन्छा .

You may come in.

32

मैले पकाए हुन्छा ?

May I cook?

33

तपाइले पकाउनु हुदैन .

You should not cook.

34

na + past v.s. + ए हुन्छा ?

Is it OK if I don't? or as statement: It's ok if you don't.

35

भोलि म यहा नआए हुन्छा ?

Is it OK if I don't come here tomorrow?

36

भोलि तपाइँ यहा नआए हुन्छा .

It's OK if you don't come here tomorrow.

37

हुन्छा ?

Okay?

38

हुदैन

not okay (हु is nasalized)

39

म घारमा जान्छु, हुन्छा ?

I'm going to my house, okay? (ans: हुन्छा = okay)

40

न + past v.s. + इकन

without doing something ( जुत्ता नलगाइकन )

41

past v.s. + एको

inform past & pres. continuous (...ing); used with all pronouns & does not conjugate.

42

(past tense use of एको ) हिजो म पाटन गएको .

Yesterday I went to Patan.

43

(pres. cont. use of एको ) अहिले मैले पिज्जा खाएको

I'm eating pizza now.

44

न + past v.s. + एको

(neg. form) did not or am not doing something

45

किन नखाएको ?

Why didn't you eat? (or) Why are you not eating? (Can be used with any personal pronoun)

46

pres. v.s. + ने

pres. or fut. tense w/any personal pronoun.

47

न + pres. v.s. + ने

negative form, pres. or fut. tense w/ any pronoun

48

अब तपाइँ गए हुन्छा .

Now you may go.

49

आज नोभेम्बर २० तारिख हो .

Today's date is Nov. 20.

50

आज कति तारिख हो ?

What is today's date?