Flashcards in Lesson 18 Grammar Deck (25):
Pres. Perfect Tense
I have done/ have been; I have .....ed
म / मैले past stem + एको छु / छैन
I have done / have been
म Indiaमा गएको छु, तर Chinaमा गएको छैन.
I have been to India, but I have not been to China.
तपाई (ले) = inf. + भएको छ / छैन
you (formal) have done / have been
have not done / not been
हामि (ले) = past stem + एका छौ / छैनौ
we have done / have been (nasal ending)
have not done / have not been
तिमि (ले) = past stem + एका छौ / छैनौ
उ / यो / त्यो = past stem + एको छ / छैन
he / this / that
उनीहरु = past stem + एका छन् / छैनन्
PAST Perfect Tense
Just change " छ " to " थियो "
1st Per. Sg. Past Perf. Tense
म गएको थिए (nasal)
When 2 things occur at the same time in the past, use PAST Perf. tense (a time ref. is needed)
हिजो तपाई मेरो घरमा आउदा (खेरि), म बजारमा गएको थिए .
हिजो म फिलिम हेर्न गएको थिए तर फिलिम हल बन्द थियो
Yesterday I had gone to watch a film, but the film hall was closed.
past stem + एको वेला
when . . . (any tense)
म Indiaमा गएको वेला, mobile किन्छु .
When I go to India I will buy a mobile.
Pres. Perf. tense is sometimes used w/Pres. tense meaning. मैले वहालाई चिनेको छु .
I know him/her.
Pres. Perf. tense is sometimes used w/Pres. tense meaning. बच्चा सुतेको छ
the baby is sleeping
pres. stem + न लाग्नु
about to do something (laagnu is never in pres. tense)
pres. stem + न लाग्नु in simple past tense = present tense meaning. म जान लागे
I am about to go.
pres. stem + न लाग्नु in Pres. Perf. tense = also pres. tense meaning. म जान लागेको छु .
I am about to go.
pres. stem + न लाग्नु in PAST Perf. tense = past tense meaning. म जान लागेको थिए
I WAS about to go.
खान लागेको बेला
when I am/was/will be about to eat
खान लाग्दा (खेरि)
when I was about to eat
तपाई के खान लाग्नू भयो ?
What are you about to eat? (formal तपाई)
तपाई के खान लाग्नू भएको ?
What are you about to eat? (informal तपाई)