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Flashcards in Lesson 3 - Early Christian Philosophy Deck (9)
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Who was Justin Martyr?

Early Christian apologist c. 110-165 AD
BIG IDEA: Philosophy is good, and Christianity is the best philosophy.


Who was Irenaeus?

Early Christian apologist 120-202 AD
Opposed 2nd century Gnosticism
Early witness to 4 canonical gospels
BIG IDEA: Evil is a necessary condition for human moral development


Who was Tertullian?

Early Christian apologist c. 160-225 AD
Opposed Marcion, Gnostics and docetists
Early defense of Trinity
"What does Athens have to do with Jerusalem?"
Emphasized revelational basis for Christianity
BIG IDEA: Greek philosophy is no match for Scripture and Apostolic tradition.


Who was Clement of Alexandria?

Early Christian apologist c. 150-215 AD
Philosophy is God's covenant with Greeks, just as Law is God's covenant with Jews)
Philosophy cannot produce faith, but it can support it.
BIG IDEA: Greek Philosophy is Christianity's ally.


Who was Origen?

Early Christian apologist 185-254 AD
First influential Christian synthesizer: Christianity + neoplatonism.
High view of Scripture by revelation, but allegorical
Logos is an emanation from Father, therefore ontologically subordinate.
Distorted the Trinity
Human souls are pre-existent.
Salvation is a process of divinization (thru education)
Christ's atonement was merely exemplary
Universalistic eschatology
BIG IDEA: Neoplatonism can help us understand and defend Christian doctrines.


Who was Athenasius?

One of the Nicene Fathers c. 293-373 AD
Theological reformer who had to straighten out Origen's mess.
Combated Arianism: God alone can save, God alone should be worshiped
Maintained the creator / creature distinction
"Athanasius contra mundum"


Who were the Cappadocian Fathers?

Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nanzianzus, Gregory of Nyssa.
Developed doctrine of Trinity
Affirmed deity of Holy Spirit
Emphasized one "ousia" three "hypostases"
Still influenced by Neoplatonism (salvation by divinization thru knowledge, apophatic theology, universalist tendencies)


Who was Augustine of Hippo?

354-430 AD
He was the Man!
Evil is a moral problem rather than a metaphysical problem.
Distinction between visible and invisible church
A balanced exposition of the Trinity (take that, Origen!)
"Give what you command, and command what you will"
Argued for fall of man, original sin, predestination
BIG IDEA: God is the absolutely sovereign creator, and we are utterly dependent on God for existence, knowledge, goodness and salvation.


Augustine's view of freewill?

LIberty of spontaneity, not liberty of indifference.
Spontaneity is the freedom to act according to one's desires.
Indifference is the freedom to act one way or another.
In our fallen state, we can only choose to sin (our desires) so we only have liberty of spontaneity.