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Flashcards in Lesson 4 Deck (32):
1

is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.

earthquake

2

is a fault that is likely to become the source of another earthquake sometime in the future.

active fault line

3

Geologists commonly consider faults to be active if there has been movement observed or evidence of seismic activity during the last _____years

10,000

4

It is the total energy released at the earthquake’s point of origin which is below the earth's surface.

magnitude

5

Not felt. Detected only by sensitive seismographs under favorable conditions

Magnitude 1

6

Hardly perceptive. Detected by seismographs

Magnitude 2

7

"Very feeble". Felt only near the epicenter

Magnitude 3

8

"Feeble" generally felt but dont usually cause any damage

Magnitude 4

9

"Moderate" earthquake --May-- cause local damages

Magnitude 5

10

"Strong" earthquake. ---Usually--- cause local damages

Magnitude 6

11

"Major"earthquake. Causes considerable widespread damages; maybe accompanied by surface rupture and tsunami

Magnitude 7

12

"Great" earthquake. Potentially devastating

Magnitude 8

13

Rare earthquake . only 5 recorded since 1900

Magnitude 9

14

Is the perceived strength of an earthquake based on the relative effect to people and structures on the earth’s surface.

Intensity

15

Scarcely perceptible-perceptible to people under favorable circumstances

Intensity 1

16

Slightly felt- Felt by few individuals at rest indoors

Intensity 2

17

Weak-Felt by many people indoors especially in upper floors of buildings

Intensity 3

18

Moderately Strong -Felt generally by people indoors and by some people outdoors

Intensity 4

19

Strong -Generally felt by most people indoors and outdoors

Intensity 5

20

Very Strong- Many people are frightened

Intensity 6

21

Destructive -Most people are frightened and run outdoors

Intensity 7

22

Very Destructive -People are panicking

Intensity 8

23

Devastating -People are forcibly thrown to the ground

Intensity 9

24

Completely Devastating -practically all man made structures are destroyed

Intensity 10

25

Is caused by the passage of seismic waves beneath structures.

ground shaking

26

Is the displacement of the ground due to the violent shaking of the surface.

Ground rupture

27

occurs when one side of the ground goes up or down or both.

vertical displacement

28

is a lateral movement from side to side.

horizontal displacement

29

Takes place when there is an increase in water pressure in saturated soils because of ground shaking.

liquefaction

30

is a form of mass wasting that includes a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep failure of slopes, and shallow debris flows. 

landslide

31

The lowering of the land surface occurs for many reasons, such as the extraction of ground water, mining, and earthquake.

ground disturbance

32

Is the series of large waves resulting from the disturbance of the sea water commonly due to an earthquake.

tsunami