Patriotism-people were willing to defend and give their lives for their country
Continental army was small and always short of soldiers
Soldiers outnumbered the Continental army & had mercenaries known as Hessians and recruited Loyalists, African Americans, and Native Americans
Sending troops and supplies from Great Britain to North America was slow and costly
Early in the war Washington did not want them to fight fearing the army would be a way to become runaway slaves. The British promised them freedom, but Washington changed his mind because there was a shortage of troops.
Battle of New York
Washington used the Declaration of Independence as a motive for the troops to fight for independence. Inexperience and lack of training for the Americans was too much, and they lost this battle losing over 1400 men. General Howe ordered a halt in the attack assuming Americans would surrender, but Washington did not and retreated hungry and cold
Thomas Paine's pamphlet reminding Americans that real patriots hold onto their beliefs even in hard times. As a result Washington had a new plan to attack the Hessian troops camped in Trenton, New Jersey.
Battle of Trenton
On Christmas night, Washington crossed the icy Delaware in boats despite being bitterly cold and having worn out shoes and guns too wet to fire. The Americans caught the Hessians by surprise and they surrendered. This battle improved the morale of the Americans showing they can beat the British.
Battle of Saratoga
Americans outnumbered Burgoyne and attacked. British accepted defeat. It was a turning point in the war as France became an ally of the Americans sending money, troops, weapons, and warships. Spain also entered the war against Great Britain.
The winter was particularly harsh, and the army was short on food, clothing, and supplies. The leadership of George Washington and Baron von Steuben made sure they were fed, clothed and trained as better, tougher soldiers.
Baron Friedrich von Steuben
Turned the Continental army into an organized fighting force and used a continuous drill.
Marquis de Lafayette
He helped raise the troops' spirits, and he used his own money to buy the men warm clothing.
Battle in the South
The British had a successful attack on Savannah, Georgia. They tried to take the Carolinas but guerrillas, soldiers who are not part of a regular army, attacked the British and then faded into the swamps and forests. Washington sent General Nathanael Greene to slow the British advance through the South. While the army was too small to meet Cornwallis in a major battle, they led Cornwallis's troops on an exhausting chase through the southern backcountry.
Battle of Yorktown
France sent 3,000 troops along with 29 French warships. Washington moved his army south to Virginia, joined the French, and surrounded Yorktown on land with more than 16,000 troops. French warships sealed off the entrance to Chesapeake Bay. American and French troops formed two long lines that stretched for more than a mile along the road to Yorktown and the British laid down their guns.
the Father of American cavalry (horseback) who convinced Washington and the American army to organize a cavalry division.
Treaty of Paris
Great Britain agreed to recognize the United States as an independent nation. It gave up its claims to all lands between the Atlantic Coast to the Mississippi River-from the border of Canada south to Florida. The United States agreed to return all rights and property taken from Loyalists during the war.
Effect of the War
1. At least 6,200 Americans had been killed in combat 2. 10,000 died in camp of diseases 3. 8,500 died while in captivity as British prisoners 4. Inspired revolts in South America against European rule 5. Influenced the French Revolution
New American Strategy
Avoid large battles and more defensive-try to tire them out
New British Strategy
To divide the rebels by taking control of New York's Hudson River Valley and control the waterways to cut New England off from the rest of the states.
a violent attempt to resist or overthrow the government or another authority
a nation that joins another nation in some common effort, such as fighting a war
Received help from overseas-gunpowder and money
George Washington was more than an experienced leader inspiring courage & confidence
Home territory advantage
Few Americans were trained for battle
Army had shortages of guns, gunpowder, food, and uniforms
Congress lacked power to raise taxes and had to print paper money resulting in inflation
Well trained in military tactics and had experience firing artillery
Well supplied with food, uniforms, weapons, & ammunition
The British people were not passionate about defeating the rebels and paying war debts
The British had poor military leadership.