Lesson 7 - The American Revolution Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 7 - The American Revolution Part 2 Deck (31):
1

American Strengths

Patriotism-people were willing to defend and give their lives for their country

2

American Weaknesses

Continental army was small and always short of soldiers

3

British Strengths

Soldiers outnumbered the Continental army & had mercenaries known as Hessians and recruited Loyalists, African Americans, and Native Americans

4

British Weaknesses

Sending troops and supplies from Great Britain to North America was slow and costly

5

African Americans

Early in the war Washington did not want them to fight fearing the army would be a way to become runaway slaves. The British promised them freedom, but Washington changed his mind because there was a shortage of troops.

6

Battle of New York

Washington used the Declaration of Independence as a motive for the troops to fight for independence. Inexperience and lack of training for the Americans was too much, and they lost this battle losing over 1400 men. General Howe ordered a halt in the attack assuming Americans would surrender, but Washington did not and retreated hungry and cold

7

The Crisis

Thomas Paine's pamphlet reminding Americans that real patriots hold onto their beliefs even in hard times. As a result Washington had a new plan to attack the Hessian troops camped in Trenton, New Jersey.

8

Battle of Trenton

On Christmas night, Washington crossed the icy Delaware in boats despite being bitterly cold and having worn out shoes and guns too wet to fire. The Americans caught the Hessians by surprise and they surrendered. This battle improved the morale of the Americans showing they can beat the British.

9

Battle of Saratoga

Americans outnumbered Burgoyne and attacked. British accepted defeat. It was a turning point in the war as France became an ally of the Americans sending money, troops, weapons, and warships. Spain also entered the war against Great Britain.

10

Valley Forge

The winter was particularly harsh, and the army was short on food, clothing, and supplies. The leadership of George Washington and Baron von Steuben made sure they were fed, clothed and trained as better, tougher soldiers.

11

Baron Friedrich von Steuben

Turned the Continental army into an organized fighting force and used a continuous drill.

12

Marquis de Lafayette

He helped raise the troops' spirits, and he used his own money to buy the men warm clothing.

13

Battle in the South

The British had a successful attack on Savannah, Georgia. They tried to take the Carolinas but guerrillas, soldiers who are not part of a regular army, attacked the British and then faded into the swamps and forests. Washington sent General Nathanael Greene to slow the British advance through the South. While the army was too small to meet Cornwallis in a major battle, they led Cornwallis's troops on an exhausting chase through the southern backcountry.

14

Battle of Yorktown

France sent 3,000 troops along with 29 French warships. Washington moved his army south to Virginia, joined the French, and surrounded Yorktown on land with more than 16,000 troops. French warships sealed off the entrance to Chesapeake Bay. American and French troops formed two long lines that stretched for more than a mile along the road to Yorktown and the British laid down their guns.

15

Casimir Pulaski

the Father of American cavalry (horseback) who convinced Washington and the American army to organize a cavalry division.

16

Treaty of Paris

Great Britain agreed to recognize the United States as an independent nation. It gave up its claims to all lands between the Atlantic Coast to the Mississippi River-from the border of Canada south to Florida. The United States agreed to return all rights and property taken from Loyalists during the war.

17

Effect of the War

1. At least 6,200 Americans had been killed in combat 2. 10,000 died in camp of diseases 3. 8,500 died while in captivity as British prisoners 4. Inspired revolts in South America against European rule 5. Influenced the French Revolution

18

New American Strategy

Avoid large battles and more defensive-try to tire them out

19

New British Strategy

To divide the rebels by taking control of New York's Hudson River Valley and control the waterways to cut New England off from the rest of the states.

20

rebellion

a violent attempt to resist or overthrow the government or another authority

21

ally

a nation that joins another nation in some common effort, such as fighting a war

22

American Strengths

Received help from overseas-gunpowder and money

23

American Strengths

George Washington was more than an experienced leader inspiring courage & confidence

24

American Strengths

Home territory advantage

25

American Weaknesses

Few Americans were trained for battle

26

American Weaknesses

Army had shortages of guns, gunpowder, food, and uniforms

27

American Weaknesses

Congress lacked power to raise taxes and had to print paper money resulting in inflation

28

British Strengths

Well trained in military tactics and had experience firing artillery

29

British Strengths

Well supplied with food, uniforms, weapons, & ammunition

30

British Weaknesses

The British people were not passionate about defeating the rebels and paying war debts

31

British Weaknesses

The British had poor military leadership.