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Flashcards in Lessons 1-6 Deck (31):

What is Content Analysis?

An observational research method in which the researcher studies a large set of data with a coding system


What are the 3 steps involved in Content Analysis?

Sampling (time/event), Recording
Method (write down/video) and Categorization (quantitative/qualitative)


What are some strengths of Content Analysis?

High Ecological validity (simply observation, no IV manipulated) and Produces qualitative AND quantitative data (high quality data is produced)


What are some weaknesses of Content Analysis?

Investigator may be reflexive (have preconceived ideas about the research topic) and research is subject to Cultural bias (different researchers may have different interpretations of what constitutes as recordable behaviors)


What are Case Studies?

Real life situations that provide detailed insight into rare/fascinating behavior that can be used as evidence for theories


What are some strengths of Case Studies?

Provide rich, detailed qualitative data (very valid) and Allows psychologists to investigate rare behaviors (and things that would be unethical to test by manipulating an IV e.g Genie the Feral Child)


What are some weaknesses of Case Studies?

Can be very specific with small samples when looking at rare behaviors (difficult to generalise) and Low reliability of Data (if said scenarios are repeated results may be different)


What is Reliability?

When an experiment is re-carried out and produces the same results as the first test, the research can be deemed as reliable


What is Internal Reliability?

Whether measuring instruments can be used in research and produce the same results e.g a ruler. NOT something subjective like a rating scale


What is Intra Researcher reliability?

The degree of consistency between different researchers results for the same experiment


What is Inter Observer reliability?

Ensuring an observation isn't biased by using multiple researchers for the same study and comparing their results


What is a Pilot Study?

Small scale preliminary study with a small sample to identify any problems with a study making the actual experiment as efficient as possible


What is Internal Validity?

The extent to which an experiments IV affects the DV


What are Investigator effects?

Traits of the investigator that might have an effect on the DV


What are Demand Characteristics?

When participants try to guess the aim of a study and change their behaviors based on this guess


What are Confounding Variables?

Uncontrollable external variables that can affect the DV e.g Weather


What is Social Desirability Bias?

When participants change their responses in a study to make themselves more acceptable/desirable to society


What is Operationalisation?

Making a qualitative/subjective test measurable and quantifiable by assigning a scale


What is Ecological Validity?

Extent to which you can generalise results from a study to real life


What is Mundane Realism?

Extent to which the scenario in an experiment occurs in real life


What is Temporal Validity?

Extent to which a studys results will be valid in the future


What is Face Validity?

Way of measuring whether a test measures what is actually desired to be measured


What is Concurrent Validity?

Comparing results from a new study to an older study and seeing how similar they are. If they score 0.8+ score in the correlation coefficient then the new test can be considered valid


What is a Double Blind Procedure?

Variation of an experiment in which the investigator and participants don't know the aim of the study


What are the 4 stages of Deductive Reasoning?

Propose a theory
Develop a Hypothesis
Test the Theory
Draw Conclusions


What are the 5 stages of Inductive Reasoning?

Observe Environment
Develop Hypothesis
Test Hypothesis
Draw Conclusions
Create Theory


What are 3 things that make Psychology a Science?

Control of Confounding Variables
Operationalisation of DV
Large Sample Size


What is Paradigm Shift?

When an emerging paradigm has contradictory evidence over the existing paradigm and a scientific revolution occurs, making the new paradigm the accepted theory


What is an Empirical Method?

Method of gaining knowledge that relies on direct testing/observation


What is Replicability?

The extent to which the same results of an experiment can be achieved in different contexts


What is Falsifiability?

The idea that theories can be wrong/disproved through evidence. This makes a theory valid