Flashcards in Lessons 1-6 Deck (31):
What is Content Analysis?
An observational research method in which the researcher studies a large set of data with a coding system
What are the 3 steps involved in Content Analysis?
Sampling (time/event), Recording
Method (write down/video) and Categorization (quantitative/qualitative)
What are some strengths of Content Analysis?
High Ecological validity (simply observation, no IV manipulated) and Produces qualitative AND quantitative data (high quality data is produced)
What are some weaknesses of Content Analysis?
Investigator may be reflexive (have preconceived ideas about the research topic) and research is subject to Cultural bias (different researchers may have different interpretations of what constitutes as recordable behaviors)
What are Case Studies?
Real life situations that provide detailed insight into rare/fascinating behavior that can be used as evidence for theories
What are some strengths of Case Studies?
Provide rich, detailed qualitative data (very valid) and Allows psychologists to investigate rare behaviors (and things that would be unethical to test by manipulating an IV e.g Genie the Feral Child)
What are some weaknesses of Case Studies?
Can be very specific with small samples when looking at rare behaviors (difficult to generalise) and Low reliability of Data (if said scenarios are repeated results may be different)
What is Reliability?
When an experiment is re-carried out and produces the same results as the first test, the research can be deemed as reliable
What is Internal Reliability?
Whether measuring instruments can be used in research and produce the same results e.g a ruler. NOT something subjective like a rating scale
What is Intra Researcher reliability?
The degree of consistency between different researchers results for the same experiment
What is Inter Observer reliability?
Ensuring an observation isn't biased by using multiple researchers for the same study and comparing their results
What is a Pilot Study?
Small scale preliminary study with a small sample to identify any problems with a study making the actual experiment as efficient as possible
What is Internal Validity?
The extent to which an experiments IV affects the DV
What are Investigator effects?
Traits of the investigator that might have an effect on the DV
What are Demand Characteristics?
When participants try to guess the aim of a study and change their behaviors based on this guess
What are Confounding Variables?
Uncontrollable external variables that can affect the DV e.g Weather
What is Social Desirability Bias?
When participants change their responses in a study to make themselves more acceptable/desirable to society
What is Operationalisation?
Making a qualitative/subjective test measurable and quantifiable by assigning a scale
What is Ecological Validity?
Extent to which you can generalise results from a study to real life
What is Mundane Realism?
Extent to which the scenario in an experiment occurs in real life
What is Temporal Validity?
Extent to which a studys results will be valid in the future
What is Face Validity?
Way of measuring whether a test measures what is actually desired to be measured
What is Concurrent Validity?
Comparing results from a new study to an older study and seeing how similar they are. If they score 0.8+ score in the correlation coefficient then the new test can be considered valid
What is a Double Blind Procedure?
Variation of an experiment in which the investigator and participants don't know the aim of the study
What are the 4 stages of Deductive Reasoning?
Propose a theory
Develop a Hypothesis
Test the Theory
What are the 5 stages of Inductive Reasoning?
What are 3 things that make Psychology a Science?
Control of Confounding Variables
Operationalisation of DV
Large Sample Size
What is Paradigm Shift?
When an emerging paradigm has contradictory evidence over the existing paradigm and a scientific revolution occurs, making the new paradigm the accepted theory
What is an Empirical Method?
Method of gaining knowledge that relies on direct testing/observation
What is Replicability?
The extent to which the same results of an experiment can be achieved in different contexts