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Flashcards in Leukemia Deck (7)
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1

- Neoplastic proliferation of blasts often leads to?
- Normal blast range in bone marrow? Leukemia?
- Signs and symptoms acute?
- See what on smear? Nucleoli? Cytoplasm?
1.) Scheme of AML? (2)
2.) Signs its a myeloproliferative neoplasm? (2) Transform to AML?
3.) Signs it's a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)? (4) Transform to AML?

- Crowding out other lineages
- 1-2%; >20%
- Yes
- Large, immature cells; punched out; not much
1.) >/= 20% immature myeloid cells in blood or marrow; presence of cyto markers
2.) Persistant increase of 1 or more myeloid lineages; /= 1 lineage; blasts

2

MPN Schematic:
- MPN to CML signs? (3)
- Not CML to PV signs? (4)
- Not CML to Not PV sign?
- Not PV to ET signs? (3)
- Not PV to PMF signs? (3)

- BCR-ABL positive, high neutro's and baso's; maybe increased ptt's
- High RBC; JAK2 mutation; high neutro's and ptts
- Normal RBC
- High ptt's with normal neutro's; megakaryocytosis; +/- JAK2 mutation
- High ptts and high neutro; bizare big cells; +/- JAK2 mutation

3

- Hematologic malignancies often arise from?
- Acute leukemia: Progressive? Cells typically what? Often present with? (3)
- Chronic leukemia: Increased what? Why? Symptoms at diagnosis? Chance of going to acute?
- High grade vs low grade lymphoma?
- Cyto markers in many leukemias? What else can play role? (3)
- Epi of leukemia in kids? Lymphoma? Adults?
- WHO scheme uses?
- MDS: Marrow often taken over by?
- MPN: Marrow taken over by?
- Hodgkin lymphoma?
- Non? Cell is more common?

- Clonal malignant population of cells
- Yes; blasts; low N's, ptts, RBC's
- WBC count; accumulation of mature normal cells; sometimes none; rare
- Rapidly enlarging (usually with acute) vs. not
- translocations are common; enviro, virus, chemo
- Leukemia = 1 Lymph = 3; Leu = 6 Lym = 7
- multi parameter
- Clone that makes abnormal cell
- Clone makes too many normal cells
- Derived from B cells with unique cell
- Malignancy of mature lymphocytes; B cell

4

- AML/ALL presentation? (3)
1.) ALL: 75% of cases? Require a percentage blast? Immunophenotyping helps distinguish what?
- Markers: Lympho/myelo blasts have what? Only on immature lympho? B cell? (2) T cell? (2)
a.) B-ALL: Percent of ALL? Usually lack what marker? Common in who? Common trnaslocation? 3 common cyto findings and related prognosis?
b.) T-ALL: % of ALL? HIgh frequency in? Males or females? May also have?
- Treatment: Who has better prognosis? B lymphoblastic hyperdiploidy? Hypodiploid?

- Anemia, thrombocytopenia, netropenia
- Kids

5

- AML: More common in who? Defined how? Common markers? (2) Lympho/myelo blast differentiation? But?
- What is used to diagnose?
1.) RUNx1-RUNX1T1: Trans? Prognosis? % cases?
2.) CBFB: Trans? Prognosis? % cases? Abnormal? (3)
3.) RARA: Trans? Prognosis? % cases? Called? Morph? Risk? Treatment?
4.) Often seen with downs trans? Prognosis?
5.) MLL: Trans? Prognosis? What lineage?
- Treatment options? (2) Risk?
- Other markers? FLT3? NPM1? CEBPA? Trumps?

- Adults; >20% blasts; CD34 and CD117; tough to tell; may contain AUER rods
- Cytogenetic abnormalities
1.) t8:21; 5%; good
2.) t16:16; good; 5-10%; baso,eisino granules
3.) t15:17; good if treated; 5-10%; APL; hypergranular; DIC, retinoic acid
4.) t1:22; megakaryblastic; good
5.) t11:23; poor; monocytic
- Alkylating agents; topoisomerase inhibitors; problems later
- Bad prognosis; good; good; FLT3

6

- MDS: Marrow replaced with? Ineffective what? Increased risk of? How many types?
1.) Primary (idiopathic): Common age?
2.) Secondary: Due to? Usually deletions where?
- Diagnosis: Morph evidence of? Increased? Common cyto abnormalities? (3)
- Potential pitfalls with morphology? (4)
- Low grade: Blasts in BM and blood? 2 types? Prognosis?
- High grade: Blasts in BM and blood? 2 types? Blasts? Prognosis?
- MPN vs. MDS: Multiple lineages with? Normal cells? Increased marrow cells? Insiduous onset? AML more common in? Spleno/hepatomegaly with?

- Malignant clone; hematopoieses; AML; 2
1.) over 50
2.) Therapy; chrom 5 or 7
- dysplasia; myoblasts (

7

MPN's:
1.) CML: Translocation? Gene? WBC? Lots of? Basophils? Multiple breakpoints due to? Treatment? May need to add? Prognosis?
2.) Polycythmia Vera: RBC mass? Mutation? Pitfalls? (3) Common complications? Treatment?
3.) Primary myelofibrosis: Granulocytes? Megakaryocytes? Mutation? Leads to? RBC shape? Most deaths due to?
4.) Essential thrombocytopenia: Granulocytic hyperplasia? Mutation? Megakaryocytes? Splenomegaly? Symptoms? High risk of?

1.) t9:22; BCR:ABL; 12k-1 mil; neutrophils; high as well; alt. splicing; Imatinib; 2nd/3rd gen therapy; good
2.) High; JAK2; smokers, chronic hypoxia, Hb disorders; clots in BIG arteries; blood letting
3.) High; high; JAK 2 50%; extramedullary hemato.; darco teardrop; bone marrow failure
4.) No; 50% JAK; even bigger; no, often non; ischemia