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Flashcards in Levels of Evidence Deck (8)
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Data combined from multiple studies with statistical analysis


Systematic Review

Comprehensive review, but no stats


Randomized Controlled Trial

(Level 1)
Groups randomly assigned to either a treatment or control group. Ideally, groups should be similar at the start of the experiment.
ex) Future surgical patients of yours who are willing to take aspirin or a sugar pill


Prospective Cohort Study

(Level 2)
Two groups, followed over some future time. Group assignment is not random.
ex) Measuring cholesterol levels every week in students ho drink coffee vs students who do not


Retrospective Cohort Study

(Level 3)
Two groups, looking back in time
Ex) Reviewing hphy 212 data for the past 3 years and comparing grades for males and females


Case-Control Study

(Level 3)
Two similar groups with different outcomes are compared
Ex) A study comparing people with diabetes compared to people without diabetes to examine genetic risk factors


Case Series

(Level 4)
Similar to a case report, but with multiple patients (or observations)
Ex) your next week's surgical patients all taking aspirin


Expert Opinion

(Level 5)
Asking experts what they think