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Flashcards in Midterm 2 Stuff Deck (41)
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1

True Positive

Condition positive and test positive

2

Type 2 Error

False Negative.
Test negative and Condition positive
-Reporting no effect when there is an effect

3

Type 1 Error

False Positive.
Test positive and Condition Negative
-Reporting an effect when there is no effect

4

True Negative

Condition Negative and Test Negative

5

How do we decrease false positives (Type 1 Error)?

Decrease Alpha level

6

How do we decrease false negatives (Type 2 Error)?

1) Increase Sample Size
2) Increase difference between means
3) Reduce variance
**Reducing false negatives increases the power of your study

7

Sensitivity

What percentage of the time the test correctly identifies the condition
True Positive/Condition Positive

8

Specificity

Percent of the time that the test correctly excluded the condition
True Negative/Condition Negative

9

Positive Predictive Value (PPV)

Proportion of positive tests that are true positives
"A positive test is a true positive X% of the time"
True Positive/Test Outcome Positive

10

Negative Predictive Value (NPV)

Proportion of negative tests that are true negatives
"A negative test is a true negative X% of the time"
True Negative/Test outcome negative

11

Accuracy

The percentage of cases that the test is correct
(True Negative + True positive)/All Tests

12

Prevalence

People With Condition/Everyone in sample

13

Can you predict a single outcome for a random event?

NO

14

Can you make any valid statements about a series of random events?

Yes

15

Central tendency Scores

-Ways of measuring the general area around which a set of numbers lie
-Mean
-Median
-Mode

16

Variability Scores

-Standard Deviation
-Range
-confidence Intervals

17

Who do you want to generalize to?

The theoretical population

18

What population can you get access to?

The study population

19

How can you get access to them?

The sampling frame

20

Who is in your study?

The sample

21

Standard Error of the Mean (SEM)

s/sqrt(n)
-smaller than standard deviation
-uncertainty in the estimate of the mean

22

Standard Deviation

Variability in Population

23

T-tests

Assumptions:
-Sample represents the population
-normal distribution

24

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

-Extension of t-test
-more than 2 groups

25

boufferont technique to adjust alpha

Alpha(EW)=Alpha divided by the number of comparisons

26

Repeated Measures Anova

Do two or more groups change differently over trials (over time)?

27

Correlation

-Relationship between two or more characteristics
-Correlation is a necessary but not sufficient condition for causation

28

Key Parameters for Correlation

r-correlation coefficient
r^2-coefficient of determination
p-probability that this relationship is not significant
b-slope
a-intercept

29

Best Straight Line Fit

Minimize sum of squared difference between data and curve fit line

30

Multiple Regression

Correlating more than one of predictor with a criterion

31

Power Analysis

-concerned with false negatives
-more subjects increases power
-more power is needed to detect small differences
-larger t=more power

32

Beneficience

Research participants should have a greater benefit than a risk

33

Autonomy

Freedom to withdraw or give consent at any time

34

Justice

Fair selection of research participants, whole population should be represented

35

Information needed in planning research

-alpha
-mean difference
-variance
-power
-sample size

36

Dichotomous variable

Ex) Sex
Two possible groups and you are either in one or the other

37

Cutoff Score

Continuous variable needs a cutoff to become a dichotomous parameter

38

Belmont Report

3 major guiding principles:
-Autonomy
-Beneficience
-Justice

39

Role of the IRB

-Meet and review all research proposals
-Make decisions regarding study
-Follow up on studies
-implement policies, procedures and documentation for review and follow up

40

Who sits on IRB

Faculty, clinicians, community members

41

Consent elements

-voluntary
-"vulnerable" subjects (Prisoners)
-Free to withdraw at any time
-Informed consent (Assent) form