Flashcards in Life at the cellular level 2 Deck (22):
name the major elements found in the body (10)
H, C, N, O, Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca
name three other trace elements found in the body
Zn, Fe, Mg
what structural features of molecules (hydrocarbons) affect bioloical function? (3)
- the presence of polar groups (e.g carboxyl or cyano groups)
- E/Z isomerism
- chiral carbons
what are the major types of reactions that occur in the body? (4)
- internal rearrangement
- group transfers
- condensation/ hydrolysis
what bonds hold together nucleotide monmers?
3'-5' phosphodiester bonds
what are the different types of bases?
- pyrimidines (flat single rings)
- purines (flat double rings)
which bases are purines?
adenine and guanine (PURE AGONY)
which bases are pyrimidines?
cytosine, thymine and uracil
how many hydrogen bonds does adenine form with thymine?
how many hydrogen bonds does cytosine form with guanine?
what is the structure of RNA?
a single stranded polymer with some double stranded sections
- uracil replaces thymine
what bonds link polysaccharides?
what is D glucose?
- a reducing sugar whose linear form has oxidisable aldehyde groups
- forms starch
what type of reaction link polysaccharide monomers?
what is the structure of glycogen?
polymer of glucose monomers linked in a cyclic form with each gluocse molecule being "locked" in position
- at one end the gluocse molecule is held in a linear position = reducing end
what is the structure of triacylglyceride?
3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule
what is molecular conformation?
the precise arrangement of atoms in a molecule
- bonds that can rotate allow many different conformations
what is retrovir?
Zidovudine (ZDV) formerly (AZT)
- an analogue of the thymine nucleotide
of the all the macromolecules which the most and least abundant?
MOST = proteins
LEAST = DNA
what is the structure of the hydrophlic group on a phospholipid?
a polar group, a phosphate and glycerol
what does amphipathic mean?
a molecule/complex that has both a hydrophobic and hydrophilic group