Life at the cellular level 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Life at the cellular level 2 Deck (22):
1

name the major elements found in the body (10)

H, C, N, O, Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca

2

name three other trace elements found in the body

Zn, Fe, Mg

3

what structural features of molecules (hydrocarbons) affect bioloical function? (3)

- the presence of polar groups (e.g carboxyl or cyano groups)
- E/Z isomerism
- chiral carbons

4

what are the major types of reactions that occur in the body? (4)

- redox
- internal rearrangement
- group transfers
- condensation/ hydrolysis

5

what bonds hold together nucleotide monmers?

3'-5' phosphodiester bonds

6

what are the different types of bases?

- pyrimidines (flat single rings)
- purines (flat double rings)

7

which bases are purines?

adenine and guanine (PURE AGONY)

8

which bases are pyrimidines?

cytosine, thymine and uracil

9

how many hydrogen bonds does adenine form with thymine?

2

10

how many hydrogen bonds does cytosine form with guanine?

3

11

what is the structure of RNA?

a single stranded polymer with some double stranded sections
- uracil replaces thymine

12

what bonds link polysaccharides?

glycosidic bonds

13

what is D glucose?

- a reducing sugar whose linear form has oxidisable aldehyde groups
- forms starch

14

what type of reaction link polysaccharide monomers?

condensation reaction

15

what is the structure of glycogen?

polymer of glucose monomers linked in a cyclic form with each gluocse molecule being "locked" in position
- at one end the gluocse molecule is held in a linear position = reducing end

16

what is the structure of triacylglyceride?

3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule

17

what is molecular conformation?

the precise arrangement of atoms in a molecule
- bonds that can rotate allow many different conformations

18

what is retrovir?

Zidovudine (ZDV) formerly (AZT)
- an analogue of the thymine nucleotide

19

of the all the macromolecules which the most and least abundant?

MOST = proteins
LEAST = DNA

20

what is the structure of the hydrophlic group on a phospholipid?

a polar group, a phosphate and glycerol

21

what does amphipathic mean?

a molecule/complex that has both a hydrophobic and hydrophilic group

22

what is the role of a peroxisome?

to break down long fatty acid chains
- produces hydrogen peroxide