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Flashcards in Tissues Deck (42):
1

what is the general function of epithelial tissue? (4)

- cover surfaces
- connect cells
- separate compartments
- attach to basal membrane

2

what does the basal membrane consist of?

basal lamina and reticular lamina

3

what is the structure of cilia?

- projections from apical surface
- formed form tubulin (9+2 arrangement)

4

what are the similarities and differences between cilia and microvilli?

similarities:
- both projections from apical surface
differences:
- microvilli shorter and thinner than cilia
- microvilli supported by actin cytoskeleton and spectrin cross links

5

what are the types of classification for epithelial cells?

SIMPLE:
- squamous
- cuboidal
- columnar
STRATIFIED:
- squamous
- cuboidal
- columnar
- transitional
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR

6

what types of exocrine glands are there? (3)

- tubular
- acinar
- tubuloacinar

7

what is the function of exocrine glands?

to secrete directly onto surfaces or spaces (usually via ducts)

8

what do mucous glands secrete?

seceretions rich in proteoglycans

9

what do serous glands secrete?

watery protein rich secretions

10

what are myoepithelial cells?

epithelial cells that have differentiated into muscle cells
- these surrond exocrine glands and contract to force the secretions out

11

what do endocrine glands secrete?

proteinaceous secretions
- e.g peptide or steroid hormones

12

where do endocrine glands secrete?

dircetly into the bloodstream

13

how are steroid hormones stored?

stored as a lipid precursor in a lipid droplet

14

why are steroids stored as lipid precursors?

steroid hormones can travel directly through cell membrabes

15

which gland secretes steroid hormones?

adrenal gland

16

what type of epithelial cells are found in the liver?

hepatocytes

17

what structure do epithelial cells in the kidneys form?

nephrons

18

what is the parenchyma of an organ?

the main bulk of the organ

19

what can cause abnormal function of glands?

- under/ over proliferation
- under/over secretion
- loss of cilia
- loss of ciliary beat

20

what types of tissue are included as connective tissue?

- blood
- mucus
- cartilage
- bone
- adipose

21

what properties does collagen have? (3)

- high tensile strength
- flexible
- inelastic

22

which cells produce collagen?

fibroblasts

23

how many types of collagen are there?

19+

24

how do collagen fibres form?

1. polypeptides fold to form a triple helix
2. these helices twist together to form a microfibril
3. these microfibrils then join together to form a fibril
4. the fibril goes on the form a collagen fibre

25

where would type 1 collagen be found?

tendons

26

where would type 4 collagen be found?

in the basal lamina (reticulin)

27

what are elastic fibres formed from?

fibrin and elastin

28

what properties do elastic fibres have?

- can stretch 1.5 times and return to original shape
- have a yellow colour
-form flat sheets

29

what does extracellular matrix consist of? (3)

- glycoproteins (laminin and fibronectin)
- tissue fluid
- ground substance

30

what does ground substnace consist of?

- proteoglycans (protein core and GAGS)
- hyaluronic acid

31

what are proteoglycans?

carbohydrate rich chains

32

what cells are permanent loose conncetive tissue? (5)

- fibroblasts
- macrophages
- adipocytes
- mast cells
- undifferentiated meshenchyme cells

33

what cells are transient loose conncetive tissue?

white blood cells

34

what structure does dense regular conncetive tissue have?

collagen bundles aligned in one direction with parallel orientations

35

give an exmaple of dense regular conncetive tissue

tendons

36

what structure does dense irregular connective tissue have?

bundles arranged in a 3-D shape, allowing force from all directions to be applied

37

give an example of dense irregular tissue

skin (dermis)

38

where would you find simple squamous epitheial tissue?

the lining of all vascular elements e.g lining of arteries

39

where would you find simple cuboidal epithelial tissue?

in the ducts of many glands

40

where would you find simple columnar epithelial tissue?

the lining of the gut and larger ducts of exocrine glands

41

where would you find stratified squamous epithelial tissue?

buccal mucose, pharynx, larynx

42

where would you find stratified transitional epithelial tissue?

the urinary bladder and urethra