Life Cycle - Radovick 3/16/16 Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal System > Life Cycle - Radovick 3/16/16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Life Cycle - Radovick 3/16/16 Deck (16):
1

weight gain during pregnancy

essential for healthy pregnancy

for normal weight woman...

3.5 lb first trimester

1 lb/week afterwards

2

risks of being underweight during preg

underweight? high risk of having low birth weight baby

  • more risk for disease
  • 40x more likely to die in 1st month
  • long term
    • risk for obesity/HTN later life
    • lower adult IQ
    • short stature
    • ed disadvantages

3

risks of being overweight/obesity during preg

baby

  • bigger
  • 2x likely to have neural tube deficits
  • risk of heart defects

mom

  • more likley labor induction, maybe C-section
  • more gestational diabetes, post-partum HTN, infection

4

healthy support tissues

1. placenta: supply depot, waste-removal

2. umbilical cord

3. amniotic sac: surrounds, cushions baby

5

devpt origins of disease:

epigenetic changes

mom's nutrition may change gene expression in fetus to influence diseases of adulthood

  • malnutrition → DM2
  • inadequate growth during placental/gestational devpt → HTN
  • being small for gestational age → adult obesity

6

nutrients of particular interest during preg

folate

  • role in cell repro
  • increased requirement of 400-600 microg/day
  • prevents neural tube deficits
    • spina bifida
    • anencephaly
    • critical period for neural tube devpt: 17-30 days gest
  • provide through supplements, fortified foods, both

vitamin B12

  • needed to assist folate in manufacture of new cells
  • provide through animal pdts; vegans need supplements, fortified foods

7

bone nutrients

teeth nutrients

vitamin D, Ca, P, Mg

  • int abs of Ca doubles early in preg

fluoride

  • supplements recommended only if don't have F in water

8

iron

abs of Fe increases 3x

moms often take supplement, esp during trimesters 2-3

  • eating Fe rich food (liver, orysters, meat, dark green veggies) increases supply
  • eating vit C rich food enhanced abs

9

zinc

  • uses: DNA, RNA, protein synth
  • sources: food with high protein content
  • deficiency predicts low birth weight
    • Fe can interfere with abs → might need Zn supplements

10

preeclampsia

symptoms:

  • HTN
  • proteinuria
  • whole body edema

usually occurs in first preg, after 20 wek

requires prompt med attn

11

fetal alcohol syndrome

  • irreversible brain damage, mental regardation
  • facial abnormalities
  • vision abnormalities

no safe amount.

12

nutrients to support early growth

100 kcal/kg

adequate vit A, D (need D supplement if breastfed) or on non-vit-D-fortified formula)

adequate Ca (lactose in breastmilk enhances abs)

adequate water

dose of vit K at birth

13

breast milk

carbs : lactose

lipids : essential FAs

protein : alpha-lactalbumin

low Na

highly absorbable Fe, Zn

need to be supplemented with vit D

14

supplements for infants

after 6 months...

  • vitamin D
  • Fe
  • F

15

benefits of breastmilk

1. immunological protection

  • colostrum (premilk substance)
  • maternal immune factors
  • protective enzymes

2. infants who have fewer med conditions

  • stomach/int disorders
  • middle ear infection
  • resp illness

3. potential protection from later disease

  • adult obesity
  • CVD

4. potential positive effect on later intelligence

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