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Flashcards in lifespan changes in the phonatory system Deck (25):
1

position of larynx in infancy

c3-c4

2

cartilages in infancy are

soft and flexible
-hyoid overlaps thyroid
-thyroid is flatter (no adams apple)
-arytenoids look larger
-epiglottis is bulky and omega shaped

3

infant VFs

-1.5-3mm
-membranous/cartilaginous glottis about equal
-no differentiation of vocal ligament into collagenous and elastin fibers (begins at 4YO and isn't complete until after puberty)

4

f0 of infant vocalizations

-F0: 400-600 Hz

5

Acoustic characteristics of infant vocalizations

-reflexive
-few changes in intensity and duration
-cries, coughs, burps

6

f0 in premature infants..

-increased
-cry greater than 600 Hz is related to CNS pathology
-crie du chat cry of the cat

7

childhood f0

drops to around 230-250 Hz

8

laryngeal changes in childhood

-larynx increases in size and descends in neck
-differentiation of lamina propria begins

9

growth during puberty is regulated by

male and female sex hormones
-androgens (testosterone) and estrogens

10

growth during puberty males vs females

-male larynx increases 2-3X more (12mm) then females (4mm)
-angle of thyroid becomes more acute in males
-male pitch drops 1 octave
-female pitch drops 1-3 semitones

11

growth during puberty shared

-larynx descends to c6-c7
-area above pharynx has elongated and changed in per portion, pitch decreases, resonance changes (longer vocal tract)

12

adult female voice is subject to fluctuations due to:

-estrogen causes increased glandular secretion and reduced muscosal viscosity (VFs less easily moved)
-progesterone causes decreased glandular secretions and mucosal dehydration

13

premenstrual vocal syndrome

-vocal fatigue, decreased range, loss of high harmonics
-larngoscopy shows mucosal edema (swelling), thickened and reduce glandular secretions, reduced amplitude of vibration, vascular disturbances (varicose veins, hemorrhages)
-MAY be relieve by oral contraceptive pills

14

vocal aging is related to..

-structural and physiological changes
-state of health
-gender
-medications (xerostomia-dry mouth is common side effect)

15

how gender affects aging

-men age earlier
-men are not affected by menopause

16

age related changes DO NOT occur...

suddenly

17

structural changes in aging

-ossification of cartilages
-joint damage
-muscular atrophy
-connective tissue changes in lamina propria

18

ossification of cartilages

-turn to bone
-doesnt move as easily

19

joint damage

-can be affected by arthritis
-joints become eroded

20

muscular atrophy

-common in males
-cricothyroid mms becomes weaker=
-breathy voice, increased pitch
-bc they're thinner with less weight

21

connective tissues changes in lamina propria

-less visco-elasticity, not able to more as flexibly

22

FO changes

-extremely variable
-increases in males
-decreases in females
-increase in variability

23

intensity changes

-decreased intensity, less mms strength, sub glottal pressure
-decreased respiratory function, due to posture, lungs lose elasticity, less efficient nerve supply to chest and laryngeal mms
-increased breathiness

24

age related disorders that impact voice production

-COPD
-coronary artery disease
-CNS disorders

25

presbyphonia

3 categories
-auditory perceptual changes
-visual perceptual changes (endoscopy)
-acoustic changes (f0, intensity)-result from structural changes and cause changes to voice output