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Flashcards in Light and Optics Deck (29):

Electromagnetic Spectrum

All of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation; arranged according to their wavelengths (large to small):
Large wavelengths= lower energy and low frequency

Retarded Medical Interns Vie Using eXtraneous Grades

Radio < Mico< IR < Vis< UV < X < Gama


Electromagnetic Waves

A form of energy that can move through the vacuum of space, independent of matter.

Transverse waves.


Speed of light

Speed of electromagnetic waves traveling through a vacuum.

c = λf = constant equal to 3.00E⁸m/s

Based on v = λf


Visible spectrum

Electromagnetic waves that are visible to the human eye, from 400 - 700 nm broken into:

Red= 700
Violet = 400



A visual attribute of things that results from the light they emit, transmit or reflect.

In the case of reflection, all other colors are absorbed besides the perceived color.

If all light is reflected, the color preceived is white (as in the case of racemic mixtures which are optically inactive: Chem bridge)


Converging Focal Point

ALWAYS POSITIVE (+f) for both mirrors & lenses


Diverging Focal Point

ALWAYS NEGATIVE (-f) for both mirrors & lenses


Mirrors (con and di)

Converging:Concave Mirror
Diverging:Convex Mirror


Lenses (Con and di)

Converging: Convex Lens
Diverging:Concave Lens


Definition of Image Types

-Real Image Image is located where outgoing light rays converge; on the SAME SIDE as the outgoing light (+di)
-Virtual Image Image is located where the tracebacks of the light rays converge; on the OPPOSITE SIDE of the outgoing light (-di)


Image Distance (i)

positive Real Images (+i)
Negative Virtual Images (-i)


Magnification Sign & Image Type

(-) M: image is INVERTED
(+) M image is UPRIGHT
M < 1 Smaller
M > 1 Enlarged


Virtual and Inverted images

IR : Inverted images are always Real
UV: Upright images are always virtual


Diverging Mirrors and Lenses ALWAYS produce

NVU images! (Negative, Virtual, Upright)


Optic Characteristics of the Human Eye

-retina PRI images ALWAYS (Convex Lens)
-Minimum Focal Length of Eye INCREASES with age
-Relaxing Ciliary Muscles: Increases Focal Distance of Eye's Lens, Decreases Lens Power
-Contracting Ciliary Muscles: Decreases Focal Distance, Increases Lens Power
-Relaxing: Objects that are Farther Away
-Contracting: Objects that are Close



P= 1/f
Measured in Diopters


Main Equation

1/f= (1/o) + (1/i) = (2/r)
m= (-i/o)


Snells Law

n1sin(theta1) = n2Sin(theta2)


Total Internal reflection

No reflection, so light stays within the medium
Critical angle= any angle greater than this will show TIR
-N1 greater than N2
-Refraction angle has to be 90


Bending of light from a medium of low refractive index to High refractive index?

Light will bend more towards the normal when going from low n to high n
- If the incident angle is larger than the critical angle, total internal reflection will occur


Bending of light from a medium of High refractive index to Low refractive index?

Light will bend more away from the normal when going from high n to low n
- If the incident angle is larger than the critical angle, total internal reflection will occur



Tendency for different wavelengths of light to experience different degrees of refraction in medium, leading to seperation of light into the visible spectrum (a rainbow)


Aberration (Spherical or chromatic)

The alteration or distortion of an image as a result of an imperfection in the optical activity


How does the diffraction pattern for a single slit differ from a slit with a thin lens?

Diffraction through a single slit does not create characteristic fringes when projected on a screen, although the light does spread out. When the lens is introduced into the system, the additional refraction of light causes a constructive and destructive interference, creating fringes


What wave phenomenon do diffraction fringes result from?

Fringes result from constructive and destructive interference between light rays


How does double-slit diffraction and interference differ from single-slit diffraction?

The image formed during double-slit diffraction contains fringes because light rays constructively and destructively interfere. A single slit forms an image of a wide band of light, spread out from its original beam.


Plane polarized light

Plane polarized light contains waves with parallel electronic field vectors.


Circularly polarized

Circularly polarized light selects for a given amplitude and has a continuously rotating electric field direction


How does the application of polarized filter impact the wavelength of light passing through the filter

Plane polarization has no effect on the wavelength (or frequency or speed) of light. Polarization does affect the amount of light passing through a medium and light intensity