Flashcards in Limited fluid volume resuscitation Deck (27)
Hammond compendium 2009; Limited fluid volume resuscitation. What two fluid products are noted to be superior to isotonic crystalloids alone for vascular volume expansion?
Hypertonic saline and colloids
Hammond compendium 2009; The use of hypertonic saline and colloids for vascular volume expansion may expedite stabilization of hemodynamic parameters while reducing the risk of _________ and ________in the lungs and brain
Rebleeding and edema
Cerebral and renal bloodflow are preserved at what mean arterial pressure?
60-70 mm Hg
What percentage of isotonic crystalloid remains in the intravascular space after one hour?
What are additional benefits of hypertonic saline?
Restoration of cellular function following traumatic brain injury and immune system modulation
During hypotensive resuscitation, the patient is resuscitated to a mean arterial blood pressure of no greater than ___ millimeters of mercury?
Limited fluid volume resuscitation should be considered in what kind of cases?
hemoabdomen, traumatic pulmonary contusions, traumatic brain injury, and other forms of active hemorrhage
LFVR (limited fluid volume resuscitation) involves using the smallest volume of fluid possible to restore intravascular compartment and resolve shock while minimizing fluid extravasation into the brain and lungs and the risk of disrupting an incipient blood clot. What is the goal mean arterial blood pressure or the goal systolic blood pressure when performing LFVR?
MAP of 70 mm Hg or SAP of 90 mm Hg
Total body water accounts for approximately ____% of bodyweight.
Of the total body water, ____ percent is located in the intracellular space including red blood cell mass and ____ percent in the extracellular space.
The extracellular space is subdivided into intravascular (___%) a.k.a. plasma and interstitial (___%) compartments. The intravascular space and interstitial compartment are separated by what two things? Hint: what kind of cells or membranes?
Intravascular equals 25% and interstitial equals 75%. Separated by endothelial cells and a basement membrane
What is the most abundant cation in the extracellular fluid?
In response to what three things do the kidneys maintain extracellular fluid sodium levels and tonicity and contribute to the maintenance of blood pressure? (Hint: think of one system, one kind of hormone, and one axis)
In response to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, brain atrial natriuretic hormones, and the posterior pituitary-vasopressin-renal axis, the kidneys maintain extracellular fluid sodium levels and tonicity and contribute to the maintenance of blood pressure
According to starlings law of capillary hemodynamics, fluid movement between intravascular and interstitial compartments depends on (in addition to membrane pore size) differences between what three pressures?
Osmotic, hydrostatic, and colloid osmotic pressure (COP)
When hypertonic saline is used alone, the effect typically lasts less than ___ minutes. However when hypertonic saline is used in combination with colloids, the effect on volume expansion (and therefore cardiac output) is sustained for how long?
30 minutes, 2 to 3 hours
Hypertonic saline and colloids can be mixed for simultaneous administration, and the rate of administration should not exceed __ mL/kg/min.
What are the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline on the heart?
Increased inotropy, chronotropy, coronary bloodflow, and venous return
With the use of hypertonic saline, increases in renal, splanchnic, and coronary bloodflow have been attributed to a decrease in _______ _________ _________ and redistribution of cardiac output.
Peripheral vascular resistance
Hypertonic saline has also been shown to have what effect on leukocytes? (this effect may help to blunt the inflammatory response and activation of the coagulation cascade.
Decreased leukocyte adhesion and migration
Hypertonic saline use in hemorrhagic shock also prevents immunosuppression after injury by decreasing plasma levels of what cytokine?
Also by decreasing certain prostaglandins and also by limiting what other processes? (Hint: think about effect on WBC, bacteria, and lungs)
Prevents immunosuppression after injury by decreasing plasma levels of interleukin-4 and certain prostaglandins and by limiting neutrophil activation, bacterial translocation, and pulmonary lesions.
It is critical to maintain a cerebral perfusion pressure above ___ millimeters of mercury in dogs and cats. Given that CPP = MAP-ICP and that normal ICP in dogs and cats is approximately 5 to 10 mmHg, MAP must be maintained above __ millimeters mercury.
It is critical to maintain cerebral perfusion pressure above 70 mmHg in dogs and cats. MAP must be maintained above 80 mmHg
With head injury, adenosine triphosphate depletion leads to retention of _________ in the intracellular space, which results in intracellular accumulation of __________ and _________ and extracellular liberation of excitatory amino acids like ________.
With head injury, adenosine triphosphate depletion leads to retention of sodium in the intracellular space, which results in intracellular accumulation of water and calcium and extracellular liberation of excitatory amino acids like glutamine.
Hypertonic saline helps to increase extracellular sodium concentrations and restore gradients so that calcium is returned to the _____cellular space and glutamate to the ______cellular space, limiting secondary injury and neuronal death.
Calcium is returned to the extracellular space and glutamate is returned to the intracellular space
How does hypertonic saline work to minimize vasospasm, encourage local vasodilation, and limit endothelial cell swelling and permeability?
By promoting micro circulatory bloodflow and improving local oxygen delivery
Name five adverse effects of hypertonic saline administration
Transient hypernatremia, occasional premature ventricular contractiosn, bradyarrhythmias, temporary hypotension, and bronco constriction.
Name six contraindications to hypertonic saline use
dehydration, preexisting hypernatremia, cardiac failure, hyperosmolar conditions (e.g., diabetic ketoacidosis), renal failure, and intravascular volume overload.