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Flashcards in Lipids Deck (37):

What are lipids?

A group of chemicals that dissolve in organic solvents but not water


What is an oil?

A lipid that is liquid a room temperature


What is a fat?

A lipid that is solid at room temperature


What are the function of lipids?

Insulation and maintenance of body temperature
Metabolic a physiological processes such as the maintenance and integrity of the cell wall
Physical protection to internal organs
Energy storage - the only form of prolonged storage in the body


What proportion of energy intake do dietary lipids provide in the Western countries?



What is triacylglycerol?

Makes up 95% of dietary lipids
Its formed from a molecule of glycerol with 3 fatty acids attached


Describe the structure of a fatty acids

They consist of an even numbered chain of carbon atoms with hydrogens attached
A methyl group (CH3) at one end - the omega end
A carboxylic group (COOH) at the other end - the delta end


How does the structure of saturated vs unsaturated fatty acids differ?

Their carbon bonds are fully saturated with hydrogen atoms
When 2 hydrogen atoms are missing a double bond forms and monounsaturated (single double bond) or polyunsaturated (2 or more double bond) fatty acids result


How do you determine which 'family' and unsaturated fatty acid belongs to?

The position of the first double bond relative to the methyl end of the chain


What are the important families of unsaturated fatty acids?

Polyunsaturated fatty acids in which the first double bond is 3 carbons from the methyl end are called n-3 (omega 3)
n-6 (omega 6) and n-9 are also important families.


Name some common saturated fatty acids and the foods they are present in

Acetic acid - vinegar
Butyric - dairy
Caproic - dairy
Lauric - coconut
Myristic - dairy and coconut
Palmitic and stearic - most plant and animal fats
Arachidic - peanuts


Name some common monounsaturated fatty acids and where they are found

Oleic - all animal and plants
Eicosinoic - rapeseed and animal fats
Gadoleic - fish oils


Name some common polyunsaturated fatty acids and the foods they are found it

Linoleic - plant oils - sesame and safflower
alpha-linolenic- plant oils - walnuts and linseeds
Arachidonic - small amount in animal tissues
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) - fish and fish oils
Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) - fish, fish oil and animal brain
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) - as above


What is a phospholipid?

Comprise a very small amount of dietary lipds
They are a diglyceride in which the third position is occupied by phosphoric acid to which one of chalice, serine, inositol or enthanolamine is attached
These 4 phospholipids make up most of the phospholipids in the body
Phosphaditylcholine is the most abundant in nature and is otherwise known as lecithin.


What are sterols?

Lipids that are made form carbon, hydrogen and oxygen arranged in a series of 4 rings with varying side chains
Cholesterol is the principle sterol of animal tissue


What is the basic role of cholesterol?

Structural component of membrane and lipoproteins
Precursor of bile acids, vitamin D and steroid hormones


Describe the hydrogenation of fat?

Addition of a hydrogen atom at the double bond of unsaturated fatty acids to increase the degree of saturation and therefore increase the melting point of the fat.
Partial hydrogenation also changes the formation of some of the double bonds from their cis to the trans form
Transfatty acids are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease


Which fatty acids are essential?

omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. Humans are unable to insert a double bond before C7.


What is a short chain fatty acid?

Have alipathic tails less than 6 carbons long
Generally made by bacterial fermentation of fibre e.g. butyric


What are medium chain fatty acids?

They have between 6-12 carbons
e.g. caproic acid, caprylic acid and lauric acid
They get absorbed into the portal system and don't require carnitine to be transported in to eh mitochondria - meaning they are easily converted into energy and less likely to be stored as fat.


What are eicosinoids and what are they made from?

20 carbon molecules used locally for cell signalling. 3 main groups, PG1, 2 and 3.
Linoleic acid acts as the precursor form PG1, arachodonic for PG2 and ALA for PG3.


What is omega 6 and its metabolites?

Linoleic acid, GLA and DGLA


What is omega 3 and it's metabolites?

Alpha linolenic acid, EPA and DHA.


Describe the ALA pathway

Delta-6-desaturase converts ALA to EPA, which then gets converted to PG-3 or DHA. PG-3 is anti-inflammatory


Describe the omega 6 pathway

Linoleic acid gets converted to GLA via delta-6-desaturase. GLA then gets converted to DGLA. DGLA can get converted to PG-1, which is anti-inflammatory. It can also get converted to arachidonic acid by delta-5-desaturase, and then onto PG-2, which is inflammatory.
If the diet is high is omega 3 then the delta-5-desaturase will be used up and GLA is more likely to turn into PG1.


What is a simple lipid?

Fatty acids esterified with alcohols (e.g. glycerol)


How are lipids named?

After the number of carbons, the number of double bonds and the position of the first double bond
e.g. 18:2n-6 = 18 carbons, 2 double bonds, 1st double bond is at the 6th carbon from the methyl end


What are the 3 phases of fat digestion?

Gastric, duodenal and ileal


Describe the gastric phase of fat digestion

lingual lipase may begin fat digestion in the mouth. It then may continue into the stomach where is acts as a gastric lipase and degrades upto 10% of the ingested fat. The entry of the resulting FAs and monoacylglycerols acts to stimulate production of cholecystokinin and inhibits gut motility.
Chyme is produced in the gut, with the fat sitting on top of an aqueous layer - which delays fat entry into the duodenum.
The pyloric sphincter controls the rate of emptying - it opens twice per minute allowing about 3 mls through at a time.


Describe the duodenal phase of fat digestion

The entry of chyme containing minor lipolytic products into the duodenum stimulates
-the release of CCK which inhibits gut motility
-secretion of bile acids from the gallbladder
-the release of pancreatic juice containing lipases


Describe lipolysis in the duodenum

Hydrolysis of bonds between a FA and the glycerol backbone of the TAG and phospholipids and cholesterol in the cholesterol esters.
The reaction is catalysed by pancreatic enzymes including lipase and phospholipase A2.
FA from position 1 is removed first, and then from position 3, generating 2 monoacylglycerol (2MAG)


How are fats rendered soluble in the small intestine?

They are solubilised by association with bile salts and phospholipids to form micelles


Why do bile salts render fats soluble in water?

Bile salts and phospholipids are amphipathic molecules - they are capable of interfacing with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic environments


What are the primary bile salts?

Cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids
Produced in the liver from cholesterol under the action of the rate-limiting enzyme 7-alpha-hydroxylase


How are short and medium-chained fatty acids absorbed?

Directly into the portal system and then transported bound to albumin, where they are rapidly oxidised.


Describe the ileal phase of fat digestion

Involves the transit of dietary fats from the micelles into the enterocyte
Once in the cell there is rapid conversion of MAGs top TAGs under the influence of enzyme acyl-coA-cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) - helping to maintain a concentration gradient into the enterocyte.


What is the role of chylomicrons

Once in the enterocyte the TAG and CEs get taken up into chylomicrons.
Chylomicrons leave the basement membrane by exocytosis and cross into the lymphatic vessels