Liquid Dosage Forms Flashcards Preview

Ceutics: Module 3 > Liquid Dosage Forms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Liquid Dosage Forms Deck (19)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

Liquid dosage forms

A

Oral solutions, syrups, elixirs and tinctures, topical aqueous solutions, rectal solutions, miscellaneous solutions, non-aqueous solutions, extraction methods

2
Q

These points should be considered when compounding a pharmaceutical solution:

A

Solubility
Stability
Physical/Chemical Interaction

3
Q

How can you alter solubility?

A

Solubilizing agents
Different salt forms
Alteration of the pH
Adding a co-solvent

4
Q

How to alter the rate of solution?

A

Particle Size

Extent of Agitation

5
Q

Methods of water purification

A

Distillation: makes distilled water
Ion exchange: makes deionized water
Reverse osmosis: cross flow membrane filtration

6
Q

Ethanol

A

Miscible with water (hydroalcoholic)
Antimicrobial effects in external application
Volatile, flammable
Restricted use in OTC products

7
Q

Types of ethanol Preparations

A

Alcohol USP (94.9-96%v/v ethanol–primary solvent for organic compounds )

Dehydrated Alcohol USP (99.5% ethanol v/v)

Diluted Alcohol NF: equal vol of Alcohol USP and water (49%v/v - 3% less final vol)

Alcohol, Rubbing USP (70%v/v for external use)

  • Bitter substances: denatonium benzoate or sucrose octa-acetate)
  • Denaturant
8
Q

Pharmaceutical solvents

A

Glycerin USP

  • miscible with water and alcohol
  • stabilizer, preservative, wetting agent, sweetener, auxiliary solvent
  • external or internal use

Isopropyl Alcohol
-use externally for skin rubbing, or topical vehicle, or for injection preparations and skin disinfecting

Propylene Glycol
-Frequently substituted for glycerin

9
Q

Dry mixture for solution

A

Drug powders used for better stability
Drug powder or granule form is reconstituted with purified water immediately before dispensing
Stores in fridge for 7-14 days

10
Q

Oral Solutions

A

oral rehydration solutions
available in liquid or powder (ex Pedialyte)
Do not mix with milk or fruit juices

11
Q

Syrup

A

Concentrated aqueous preparation of sugar or sugar substitutes (60-80%) sucrose; sorbitol; glycerin, methylcellulose
Resistant to antimicrobial growth
Medicated or non medicated
Commonly used as vehicles for compounding
Gives pleasant taste to disagreeable tasting drugs
Antitussives and antihistamines

12
Q

Elixirs

A

Clear, sweetened hydroalcoholic solutions intended for oral use and are usually flavored to enhance palatability
Medicated elixirs: less sweet and less viscous than syrup and uses alcohol to increase drug solubility
Non-medicated elixirs for compounding
Advantages: flexibility and ease of dose administration in patients with difficulty swallowing solid forms

13
Q

Tinctures

A

Alcoholic or hydroalcoholic (15-80%) solutions (extracts) from vegetable or chemical materials
Must be tightly stoppered and not exposed to excessive temperature, store in light resistant containers

14
Q

Types of Tinctures

A

Oral- Opium tincture (Laudanum)
Topical- compound benzoin tincture (skin protectant)
Iodine tincture (local anti-infective)

15
Q

Topical aqueous solutions

A

Aluminum acetate topical solution (Burow’s solution): astringent

Calcium hydroxide topical solution (lime water)

Hydrogen peroxide topical solution

Povidone iodine topical solution: iodine-polyvinylpyrrolidone complex solution in water, nonirritating antiseptic solution

Coal tar topical solution (an alcoholic solution): 20% coal tar, 5% polysorbate 80, ~80% ethanol

16
Q

Rectal Solutions

A
  • Retention Enemas: for local effects and systemic absorption
  • Evacuation Enemas: Disposable plastic squeeze bottles containing monobasic and dibasic sodium phosphate as a saline laxative)
17
Q

Miscellaneous Solutions

A

Aromatic waters: clear, aqueous solutions saturated with volatile oils or other aromatic/volatile substances
Spirits: alcoholic solutions of volatile substances, generally high alcoholic concentration (>60%)
Diluted acids

18
Q

Non-Aqueous Topical Solutions

A
Liniments, alcoholic or oleaginous solutions, intended to be rubbed on the skin (label: for external use only)
Collodion:
4% pyroxylin in alcohol/ether (3:1)
Volatile and flammable
External use only
Flexible collodion: 
Collodion with 2% camphor, 3% castor oil
19
Q

Extraction Methods

A

Extraction: withdrawal of desired constituents from crud drugs by selected solvents, in which the desired constituents are soluble
Menstruum: the solvent (or vehicle)
Extractive: extracted constituents (the product)
Marc: the residue (Marc = Crude drug materials – Extractives)

Maceration: soak; leach by stand in solvent (like tea bag; vanilla extracts)

Percolation: leach by running solvent– extract by slow passage of a solvent through a column of drug (like coffee maker)