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Flashcards in Living things Deck (27)
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1

Definition of movement

ability to move within the environment and/or move the environment inside itself

2

Definition of reproduction

ability to replicate life by making copies of itself

3

Definition of sensitivity

sensitivity to its environment and ability to respond to it (internal or external)

4

Definition of growth

changes in size or shape

5

Definition of respiration

release of energy through biochemical pathways

6

Definition of excretion

removal of waste products from cells (or whole organisms)

7

Definition of nutrition

taking on substances as an energy source or to build/repair materials

8

What are the characteristics of animals?

-multi-cellular
-nucleus
-store sugar as glycogen
-capable of movement
-heterotrophic

9

What are the characteristics of plants?

-multi-cellular
-nucleus
-cellulose cell walls
-chloroplasts for photosynthesis
-store sugar as starch
-autotrophic

10

What are the characteristics of fungi?

-multi-cellular or unicellular
-chitin cell walls
-made of a network of fibres called a mycelium of hyphae (multi-nuclear threads)
-Feed by SAPROPHYTIC nutrition using EXTRACELLULAR enzymes
-store sugar as glycogen
-can be pathogen
eg. Mucor

11

What are the characteristics of prokaryotes?

-Small single celled organisms.
-Three basic shapes: spheres, rods and spirals.
-Cell wall made of polysaccharides and proteins (peptidoglycan).
-Some have a capsule or slime layer.
-Has no nucleus.
-Some species have flagella.
-Some contain plasmids (loops of DNA) which we can use in genetic engineering.
eg. Lactobacillus

12

What are the characteristics of protoctists?

-nucleus, ?
-mostly single celled
-can be a pathogen
eg. Amoeba, Cholera, Algae

13

What are the characteristics of viruses?

-smaller than bacteria
-all parasitic, only reproduce inside living cells
-no cellular structure (made of cells)
-made of genetic material (RNA/DNA and nucleic acid) and a protein coat
-all natural viruses cause diseases
-can be a pathogen
eg. influenza- causes flu

14

What is a pathogen?

an (micro)organism that causes disease
-can often pass from person to person

15

What are organelles?

intracellular structures that carry out specific functions
eg. nucleus, chloroplast

16

What are cells?

basic structural and functional unit. All biological organisms are made from them
eg. epithelial cells

17

What are tissues?

a group of specialised cells, adapted to perform a specific function.
eg. connective, vascular, secreting

18

What are organs?

2 or more tissues carrying out a specific function(s)
eg. stomach

19

What are organ systems?

a group of 2 or more organs
eg. small and large intestine

20

What does the nucleus do?

contains genetic material, controls activity of cell

21

What does the cytoplasm do?

site of most chemical reactions

22

What does the cell membrane do?

controls movement of substances into and out of cell

23

What does the mitochondria do?

most energy released through respiration here

24

What does the ribsomes do?

in cytoplasm and is where protein synthesis occurs

25

What does the cell wall do?

strengthens cell, keeps it turgid , made of cellulose

26

What do the chloroplasts do?

contains chlorophyll, absorbs light energy for photosynthesis

27

What does the vacuole do?

contains cell sap (and water and waste), helps to keep the cell turgid