Local Anesthesia Review 3 Flashcards Preview

Local Anesthesia > Local Anesthesia Review 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Local Anesthesia Review 3 Deck (33):
1

#1. Allergic clinicalreactions are produced by exaggerated response of the immune system. #2. Overdose clinical reactions are related directly to the pharmalogical properties of the causative agent.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

a. both statements are true

2

In an overdose reaction:
#1. The rate of injection is the most important factor in the case of an intravascular injection. #2. The vascularity of the tissue and presence of vasoconstrictors are not factors.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

c. #1 is true and #2 is false

3

Which of the following are true about an overdose reaction?
a. local anesthetics exert a depressant effect on all excitable membranes
b. local anesthetics cross the blood brain barrier
c. respiratory depression and respiratory arrest, and cardiac arrest are possible
d. giving oxygen helps prevent acidosis
e. all of the above
f. a, c

e. all of the above

4

#1. Signs and symptoms for mild overdose reactions are usually: retention of consciousness, talkativeness, agitation, increased heart and respiratory rate. #2. Most overdose reactions are mild and self-limiting.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

a. both statements are true

5

In a severe, rapid onset overdose reaction:
#1. Patient is unconscious, with or without convulsions.
#2. Call 911, basic life support, oxygen for convulsions, possible anticonvulsants.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

a. both statements are true

6

#1. Vasoconstrictors decrease rate of absorption into the blood, reducing toxicity potential. #2. In dental local anesthetics, the drug has to enter the blood to have its effect.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

c. #1 is true and #2 is false

7

#1. The three main groups of allergenic responses to local anesthetic are: Dermatitis, bronchospasm and systemic anaphylaxis.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

c. #1 is true and #2 is false

8

#1. The most common dermatological signs/symptoms of an allergy from local are urticaria and angioedema. #2. Urticaria is associated with wheals, but has no itching.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

c. #1 is true and #2 is false

9

Concerning generalized anaphylaxis:
#1. Usually from penicillin and bee stings, not local anesthetics. #2. Epinephrine 1:1000 is given and then 10 minutes later if not better.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

a. both statements are true

10

Which of the following may be performed in management of laryngeal edema with full blockage?
a. call 911
b. give epinephrine IM or SC
c. maintain airway
d. give antihistamine IM/IV, corticosteroid IM/IV
e. all of the above
f. a, b

e. all of the above

11

#1. Taking a thorough medical history and having patient dialogue can reduce systemic complications. #2. Using a vasoconstrictor (if not contraindicated), slow rate of injection and avoiding intravascular injections can all help prevent overdose and its complications.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

a. both statements are true

12

#1. There are 4 main levels of sedation. #2. Minimal sedation (anxiolysis) is the best level to use for dental hygiene.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

a. both statements are true

13

The following is true about general anesthesia except:
a. the patient loses consciousness
b. the patient is not able to respond verbally and physically
c. patient usually maintains own airway
d. patient cannot be aroused

c. patient usually maintains own airway

14

During nitrous oxide use, if the patient becomes agitated or excited after being calm:
a. the patient needs a higher concentration of nitrous
b. the patient needs a lower concentration of nitrous
c. leave the concentration of nitrous alone and try to reason with the patient

b. the patient needs a lower concentration of nitrous

15

The following are true about nitrous except:
a. enters into a chemical combination in the body
b. does not chemically combine in the body
c. it is not metabolized in the body

a. enters into a chemical combination in the body

16

Some of the advantages of using nitrous oxide are:
a. alleviates anxiety and mild discomfort
b. easily and quickly induced (relatively)
c. can be titrated for the patient
d. all of the above
e. a, b

d. all of the above

17

#1. Atoroxin is a feeling of well being and tranquility.
#2. Hyperalgesia is an increased pain threshold.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

a. both statements are true

18

Concerning nitrous oxide and oxygen:
#1. Nitrous oxide cylinders are blue in color.
#2. Oxygen cylinders are green in color.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

a. both statements are true

19

#1. To calculate the percentages of the 2 gases, the flow rate of each gas is divided by the tidal volume and multiplied by 100.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

a. both statements are true

20

In the incremental induction technique the following are true except:
a. start at a rate of 100% oxygen flow at 6-7 liters/minute tidal volume
b. increase the nitrous by 10 to 15% for 1 minute
c. then the percentage of nitrous is increased 5% to 10% more per minute
d. most patients reach the desired effect between 50% and 75% nitrous oxide

d. most patients reach the desired effect between 50% and 75% nitrous oxide

21

At the end of the appointment the patient:
a. should be given 100% oxygen for a minimum of 5 minutes or more if needed
b. allow the patient to sit up to avoid syncope
c. patient should have normal reflexes and feel normal
d. take post vitals
e. have sit and wait if there are any questions about their state before letting them go and or drive
f. all of the above

f. all of the above

22

#1. If the N2O percentage gets too high, comfort and relaxation may disappear and be rapidly replaced with discomfort.
#2. If the patient begins to become uncomfortable, then raise the percentage of N2O immediately.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

c. #1 is true and #2 is false

(lower)

23

Symptoms of oversedation can be the following except:
a. restlessness and figidity
b. out of body experiences
c. combative
d. dizzy, spinning
e. nausea
f. speaks clearly

f. speaks clearly

24

#1. A very serious negative effect of nitrous oxide can be vomiting.
#2. Silent regurgitation can cause aspiration of vomit into lungs and needs immediate advanced attention and call 911.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

a. both statements are true

25

#1. The ideal maximum amount of N2O in the healthcare environment is 350 ppm.
#2. The scavenger should be set at 45 liters/minute.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

d. #1 is false and #2 is true

26

True OR False
Nitrous oxide use can usually be easily titrated to meet the patient's needs.

True

27

True OR False
Nitrous oxide can have some amnesic properties (hard to remember the severity of pain or anxiety).

True

28

The following are uses of the reservoir bag except:
a. mixes gases
b. monitors breathing
c. assists in emergency to provide pressure O2
d. Is used to quickly induce the effects we want
e. all of the above

e. all of the above

29

Which of the following are true about the reservoir bag?
a. if bag too inflated -> too many liter/min being given
b. if bag too deflated -> not getting enough gas
c. keep it about 2/3 to 3/4 full
d. all of the above
e. b, c

d. all of the above

30

Which of the following are causes of leakage of gases?
a. patient talking
b. patient breathing out of mouth not the nose
c. ill fitting masks
d. tubage and connection leaks
e. all of the above
f. a, b

e. all of the above

31

#1. Vascularity of injection site: the greater the vascularity, the greater the rate of absorption into blood, and shorter effect.
#2. Presence of vasoconstrictors: decreases perfusion of area - decreased rate of absorption and this reduces clinical toxicity.
a. both statements are true
b. both statements are false
c. #1 is true and #2 is false
d. #1 is false and #2 is true

a. both statements are true

32

True OR False
The main overdose cause is administration of too large of an amount (dose) in relation to age and weight and usually in kids 2-6 years with quadrant dentistry, who are well behaved.

True

33

True OR False
The best protocol to use if we are unsure if the patient has an allergy to local anesthetic or not is to give them some so we can see if they react.

False