Flashcards in Localisation of function Deck (27):
what is meant by Localisation of Brain Function?
Different areas of the brain have been linked to different functions/behaviour.
Which functions are to be localised to specific areas of the cortex ?
Language, Visual perception and Movement.
The idea that different parts of the brain perform different tasks means...?
that if a certain area is damaged (through injury/illness)= the functions associated will also be affected.
Where is the motor cortex and what is its specific function?
In the frontal lobes, controlling voluntary movement in the opposite side of the body.
Where is the Somatosensory cortex and the specfic function of it?
In the parietal lobes and tactile sensation.
Where is the Primary Visual Cortex and the specific function of it?
Occipital lobes and visual perception .
Where is the Secondary Visual Cortex and the specific function of it?
The Occipital lobes and surrounding areas, responsible for the perception of colour, form and movement.
Where is the Auditory cortex and the specific function of it?
Temporal lobes and to analyse speech based info (hearing).
Where is the Broca's area and specific function?
Base of LEFT frontal lobe and speech production.
Where is the Wernicke's area and the specific function?
Top of LEFT temporal lobe of Left hemisphere and Speech comprehension.
Consequences of damage to the Motor Cortex?
Loss of control over fine movements e.g not being able to draw/paint or tie shoelaces.
Consequences of damage to Somatosensory Cortex
Loss of sensation- inability to recognise objects by touch.
Consequences of damage to Primary Visual Cortex?
Consequences of damage to Secondary Visual Cortex?
Inability to recognise things by sight.
Consequences of damage to Auditory Cortex?
Partial hearing loss (cortical deafness)
Consequences of damage to Broca's area?
Broca's/Expressive Aphasia: speech lacking in fluency (slow and laboured)
Consequences of damage to Wernicke's area?
Wernicke's/Receptive Aphasia: Meaningless (but fluent) speech, difficulty following instructions.
Most well defined areas of the brain?
Somatosensory and Motor cortex.
The amount of cortex dedicated to different parts of the body is related to?
Sensitivity and importance.
What methodological flaws does some of the evidence have? Why has this occured?
Causation with postmodern studies from Broca and Wernicke: Brain damage can't be directly manipulated
Why does this means the theory may not be valid?
A lot the evidence is retrospective.
What evidence supports the Localisation of functioning?
Peterson used brain scans which showed: Broca's active during reading task and Wernicke's active during listening.
How does the evidence add validity to the theory?
By suggesting that the two areas were involved in different language functions
How is the supporting evidence scientific?
PET scans from Peterson more objective than case studies/post-mortem evidence that dominated the 1800's.
How does does scientific evidence further add validity?
It backs it up with empirical evidence.
What evidence is there to contradict the theory?
Lashley: complex cognitive processes are not confined to one area but distributed widely involving every part of the cortex. (Rats learning maze had some areas of cortex removed and found no area was proven to be more important than others?