Flashcards in Localisation of Function Deck (16):
What was the idea before localisation of function?
Holistic theory - that all parts of the brain were involved in processing thoughts and actions.
How was the holistic theory discarded?
Because in time, specific areas of the brains were linked with specific physical and psychological functions (localisation).
Eg if an area of the brain is damaged through injury, the function associated with that area is also affected.
What is the cerebral cortex?
The outer layer of the brain. Around 3mm thick and separates us from lower animals as it's highly developed.
The cortex of both hemisphere is divided into four lobes...
Frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal.
Outline the function of the motor area.
Controls voluntary movement. So damage may result in loss of control over fine motor movements.
Where is the motor area located?
Back of the frontal lobe.
Outline the function of the somatosensory cortex?
Processes sensory info from the skin (heat, touch, pressure).
The amount of somatosensory area devoted to a particular body part denotes its sensitivity.
Where is the somatosensory area located?
Back of parietal lobes.
Outline the function of the visual area.
Each eye sends info from the right visual field -> left visual cortex and vice versa.
So damage to left hemisphere can produce blindness in the right visual field of both eyes.
Where is the visual area located?
In the occipital lobe in back of brain.
Outline the auditory area.
Analyses speech based info.
Damage may produce partial hearing loss, and the more extensive the damage, the more serious the loss.
Where is the auditory area located?
In the temporal lobe.
Where is Broca's area found?
Left frontal lobe.
Outline Broca's area.
Damage to this area causes Broca's aphasia which is characterised by speech which is slow, laborious and lacking fluency. They may have difficulty finding certain words and naming certain objects.
May have difficulty with words eg 'a', 'the', 'and'.
Where is Wernicke's area located?
Back of the temporal lobe.