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1

Describe the philosophy of Aristotelian Realism

Aristotelian realism is common sense realism, as in that which is immediately evident in reality. It's critics are positivism and relativism.

2

Define logic and describe its relationship to truth

Logic is the study of the basic tools of reason: concepts, propositions, arguments and explanations, with the goal of discovering or preserving truth.

3

What is the correspondence theory of truth?

A proposition is true when it corresponds to reality.

4

What is the law of noncontradiction?

Something can’t be both true and untrue at the same time.

5

Identify the informal fallacy: "Old man Brown claims that he saw a flying saucer in his farm, but he never got beyond the fourth grade in school and can hardly read or write. He is completely ignorant of what scientists have written on the subject, so his report cannot possibly be true."

Ad-hominem

6

Identify the informal fallacy: "My client is an integral part of this community. If he is sent to prison not only will this city suffer but also he will be most missed by his family. You surely cannot find it in your hearts to reach any other verdict than "not guilty.""

Appeal to pity

7

Identify the informal fallacy: "You ought to try to study harder in school this year, Samuel, because it will spare your parents the embarrassment of a letter from the instructor telling them you're not taking your school work seriously."

Appeal to force

8

Identify the informal fallacy: "Congress shouldn't bother to consult major universities about educational appropriations. As members of educational establishment, they will naturally want as much money for education as they think they can get."

Genetic fallacy

9

Identify the informal fallacy: "People who believe in God are emotionally insecure."

Genetic fallacy

10

Identify the informal fallacy: "Everyone says that a logic course is easier than a math course, so it must be."

Nose counting

11

Identify the informal fallacy: "Many say it is morally wrong to cheat on your spouse. But what is morality? Who writes the moral code and has the authority to define right and wrong?"

Red herring

12

Identify the informal fallacy: "You say you want to protect the rights of the unborn. But you support strengthening the military. Doesn’t warfare also kill the born and the unborn?"

Red herring

13

Identify the informal fallacy: "You don’t believe in God. So I guess you think we all just arrived here by chance and evolved from primordial ooze. That’s ridiculous!"

Strawman fallacy

14

What is a definition? Give an example.

A sentence that explains what something is.
Example: A CPU is the processor of a computer.

15

What is a proposition? Give an example.

A sentence that could be true or false. It has truth value.
Example: Uncle Fred has 269 hairs on his head.

16

Define an argument.

A statement that contains propositions concerning a single subject and has a goal of discovering or preserving truth.

17

What are the premises of the argument “It is wrong to call homosexuality a sin because people can’t help how they were born.”?

It’s wrong to call homosexuality a sin, and people can’t help how they were born.

18

What is the conclusion of the argument “It is wrong to call homosexuality a sin because people can’t help how they were born.”?

It is wrong to call homosexuality a sin.

19

What is the inference of the argument “It is wrong to call homosexuality a sin because people can’t help how they were born.”?

The logical correlation between the premise of being unable to control how we are born, and the conclusion that it is wrong to call homosexuality a sin.

20

What are C-because explanations?

Explanations of cause or cause to exist

21

What are R-because explanations?

Reasons to believe

22

Identify a C- or R-because explanation: “God must exist because bees’ eyes are so complex that they have to have been made by a Creator.”

R-because

23

Identify a C- or R-because explanation: “The earthquake happened because of the fault line.”

C-because

24

Identify a C- or R-because explanation: “There is spaghetti on the floor because the pressure cooker exploded.”

C-because

25

Identify a C- or R-because explanation: “Rain must be coming because there are dark clouds in the sky.”

R-because

26

Describe the relationship between universals and particulars.

Concepts exist as universals; things exist as particulars. A universal is that which all members of a species, group, or class have in common, such as the concept of a “tree”; they are a thing’s essential nature. A particular is an individual member of a species, group, or class, such as an “oak tree.”

27

Describe the relationship between concepts and words.

Words are an intentional sign that conveys a concept. For instance, the glyphs “CAT” convey the concept of the feline animal.

28

What are vague words?

Vague words refer to a range on a continuum but are not precise.

29

What are ambiguous words?

Ambiguous words can refer to two or more things.

30

Old growth forest vs. new growth forest – Is 'old' vague or ambiguous?

Vague