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Flashcards in Logical Fallacies Deck (16)
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Argument based on unqualified generalization

Dicto simpliciter

(sweeping generalization; stereotyping)


Argument based on limited or biased sample to reach conclusion; leads to faulty conclusion

Hasty generalization


Assumes A caused B simply because A happened prior to B. Often superstitions arise from this kind of logic.

Post hoc, ergo prompter hoc


The two premises contradict; therefore, the logic is faulty; this fallacy's most popular appearance is in the form of a challenging question, because questions with contradictory premises are such brain teasers.

Contradictory premises


Someone tries to win support for their argument or ideas by exploiting her or his opponent's feelings of pity or guilt.

Ad Misericordiam
(appeal for sympathy)


In this type of logic, though A and B may be similar in one respect (such as colour) they may not both share property X (e.g. size)

False analogy


This fallacy consists of offering a poorly supported claim about what might have happened in the past or future if circumstances or conditions were other than they actually were or are. The fallacy also involves treating hypothetical situations as if they were fact.

Hypothesis contrary to fact


Where adverse information about a target is preemptively presented to an audience, with the intention of discrediting or ridiculing everything that the target person is about to say.

Poisoning the well


Using the same term with different meanings

(Circular logic)


The conclusion does not follow the argument; missing step; no direct relationship

Non sequitur
("It does not follow")


Assumes that something is true when it is in need of proof

Begging the question


Ignores the real issue by the use of distracting information

Ignoring the question
(Red herring)


All options are not taken into account in the solution posed by the major premise

Faulty Dilemma
(Either/or reasoning)


Ignores the real issue by turning attention to an individual; occurs in the midst of an argument.

Ad hominem
(To the person)


Logical Structure:
Formal logical reasoning containing 3 parts: 1 major premise, 1 minor premise, and a conclusion.
Each part must be categorical.
All A are B, All C are A, therefore all C are B.
_____ use careful diction and syntax.

(Major premise can't be faulty)


A "truncated syllogism" since either the major or minor premise of a syllogism is left implied; informal logic.