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Flashcards in Logical Fallacies Deck (400)
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1

Anecdotal Fallacy

Using a personal experience or an isolated example instead of sound reasoning or compelling evidence

2

Anne: "I am giving up extreme sports now that I have children. I think I will take up golf."
Bill: "I wouldn't do that. Do you remember Charles? He was playing golf when he got hit by a golf-cart. It broke his leg, and he fell over, giving himself a concussion. He was in hospital for a week and still walks with a limp. I would stick to paragliding!"

Anecdotal Fallacy

3

Using a personal experience or an isolated example instead of sound reasoning or compelling evidence

Anecdotal Fallacy

4

Appeal to probability

statement that takes something for granted because it would probably be the case

5

Statement that takes something for granted because it would probably be the case

Appeal to probability

6

Something can go wrong (premise).
Therefore, something will go wrong (invalid conclusion).

Appeal to probability

7

argument from fallacy

assumes that if an argument for some conclusion is fallacious, then the conclusion is false

8

assumes that if an argument for some conclusion is fallacious, then the conclusion is false

argument from fallacy

9

If P, then Q.
P is a fallacious argument.
Therefore, Q is false

argument from fallacy

10

Base Rate fallacy

making a probability judgment based on conditional probabilities, without taking into account the effect of prior probabilities

11

making a probability judgment based on conditional probabilities, without taking into account the effect of prior probabilities

Base rate fallacy

12

John is a man who wears gothic inspired clothing, has long black hair, and listens to death metal. How likely is it that he is a Christian and how likely is it that he is a Satanist?
If people were asked this question, they would likely underestimate the probability of his being a Christian, and overestimate the probability of his being a Satanist.

Base rate fallacy

13

Conjunction fallacy

assumption that an outcome simultaneously satisfying multiple conditions is more probable than an outcome satisfying a single one of them

14

assumption that an outcome simultaneously satisfying multiple conditions is more probable than an outcome satisfying a single one of them

Conjunction fallacy

15

Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations.

Which is more probable?

Linda is a bank teller.
Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement.
The majority of those asked chose option 2

Conjunction fallacy

16

Masked man fallacy

the substitution of identical designators in a true statement can lead to a false one

17

the substitution of identical designators in a true statement can lead to a false one

Masked man fallacy

18

Premise 1: I know who X is.
Premise 2: I do not know who Y is.
Conclusion: Therefore, X is not Y.

Masked man fallacy

19

Unwarranted assumption fallacy

The fallacy of unwarranted assumption is committed when the conclusion of an argument is based on a premise (implicit or explicit) that is false or unwarranted

20

To be on the cover of Vogue Magazine, one must be a celebrity or very beautiful.
This month's cover was a celebrity.
Therefore, this celebrity is not very beautiful.

Affirming a disjunct

21

If Bill Gates owns Fort Knox, then he is rich.
Bill Gates is rich.
Therefore, Bill Gates owns Fort Knox

Affirming the consequent

22

If I have the flu, then I have a sore throat.
I have a sore throat.
Therefore, I have the flu.

Affirming the consequent

23

Every C is B
Every C is A
So, some A is B

Existential fallacy

24

We don't read that trash. People who read that trash don't appreciate real literature. Therefore, we appreciate real literature

Affirmative conclusion from a negative premise

25

No fish are dogs, and no dogs can fly, therefore all fish can fly

Affirmative conclusion from a negative premise

26

appeal to stone

dismissing a claim as absurd without demonstrating proof for its absurdity

27

dismissing a claim as absurd without demonstrating proof for its absurdity

appeal to stone

28

Speaker A: Infectious diseases are caused by microbes.
Speaker B: What a ridiculous idea!
Speaker A: How so?
Speaker B: It's obviously ridiculous

appeal to stone

29

argument from ignorance

assuming that a claim is true because it has not been or cannot be proven false, or vice versa

30

assuming that a claim is true because it has not been or cannot be proven false, or vice versa

argument from ignorance