Logical Fallacies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Logical Fallacies Deck (12)
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1

Induction

Assumptions is made w insufficient evidence can be disproven

1) tony runs really fast.
2) Manuel runs really fast.
3) boys run really fast.

Specific to general.
You are trying to guess the rule

2

Deduction

Assumptions/ conclusions that can be made based on reasonable observations

1)tally doesn’t like sour cream
2)” “ Cream cheese
3)” “ Like dairy products


General to specific.
Yk the rule and make the inferences based on the rule

3

Ad hominem

Ex: “you’re wrong because you’re a jerk”

“To the man” argument; criticizes an idea by pointing out something about the person instead of the idea.

4

Argument from authority

Ex: “this is absolutely awesome” shakira

When someone w authority says something it must be true.

5

Appeal to ignorance

Ex: science has not proven that god doesn’t exist therefore god exists.

Claiming that by simply b/c something Has not yet been proven that it is not the case. claiming that simply because something has not yet been disproven that it is the case

6

Begging the question

Ex: “the Loch Ness monster spoke to me in my dreams, so it must exist”

Form of argument that someone assumes that part/ all of what a person claims to be proving are proven facts

7

Hasty generalization

Lu period 6: quiet

“All nava students are quiet”

Similar to stereotyping; making a claim based on a small sample size.

8

Non sequitur


Ex: Michael Scott is using health care plans and he thinks he’s a doctor for his coworkers.

Doesn’t follow, a statement that doesn’t logically relate to what comes before it (literally an interruption in a convo./ unrelated)

9

False dichotomy

Ex: if you don’t go to a 4 yr university from HS, you are a failure:
-army
-entrepreneurs
-transfer from community

Establishes two positions as if there are only two possibilities

10

Slippery slope


Ex: if you get a tattoo people will think you’re in a gang and you will get shot.

Exaggerating consequences from actual people situation

11

Faulty causality

Ex: violent video games (up)
(Teens) crime has risen

No relationship/ lack of evidence

12

Straw man

AA: whether abortion decrease crime
WA: abortion is good or bad

Attacking an argument that is weaker than the actual argument