Flashcards in Logical Fallacies Deck (21)
When someone makes a claim about a series of events that would lead to one major event, usually a bad event.
Appeal to Emotion
A logical fallacy characterized by the manipulation of the recipient's emotions in order to win an argument, especially in the absence of factual evidence.
Guilt by Association
Occurs when someone connects an opponent to a demonized group of people or to a bad person in order to discredit his or her argument.
Appeal to Nature
Because something is 'natural' it is therefore valid, justified, inevitable, good or ideal.
Occurs when the link between premises and conclusion depends on some imagined causal connection that probably does not exist.
Appeal to Authority
Insisting that a claim is true simply because a valid authority or expert on the issue said it was true, without any other supporting evidence offered.
Argumentum ad Hominem
Arguments attack a person’s character rather than reasoning though the issues.
Attempts to distract by shifting attention away from the important issue.
Ad Populum (Bandwagon)
An argument that appeals to emotions or prejudices of a certain group, despite being logically unsounded.
An argument that appeals to pity.
This fallacy draws conclusions from premises that do not necessarily apply.
The either/ or fallacy that makes the assumption that are only two alternatives.
Arguments excessively simplify an opponent’s argument to argue against it more easily.
Begging the Question (Circular Reasoning)
Occurs when a writer assumes that the statement under dispute is in fact true; such an argument is circular.
Tug at an audience’s heart strings to the point of ignoring facts, perhaps to keep the audience from disagreeing with the writer.
Equivocation (splitting hairs)
A statement that is partially correct but that purposely obscures the entire truth.
An inaccurate, inappropriate, or misleading comparison between two things.
Draws conclusions from scanty evidence.
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
An argument assumes causation based on the passing of time.
An argument that claims something is true or false because there is no evidence to prove otherwise.