Flashcards in Logical Fallacies Deck (21)
when someone makes a claim about a series of events that would lead to one major event, usually a bad event.
Appeal to Emotion
(argumentum ad passiones) a logical fallacy characterized by the manipulation of the recipient's emotions in order to win an argument, especially in the absence of factual evidence.
Argumentum ad Hominem
Argument against the person: arguments attack a person’s [character] rather than [reasoning] the issues.
Ad Populum (Bandwagon)
an argument that appeals to [emotions] of a certain group, despite being [logically unsound].
an argument that appeals [to pity].
This fallacy draws conclusions [premises] that do not [necessarily imply].
The either/ or fallacy that makes the assumption that [there are only two alternatives].
Begging the Question (Circular Reasoning)
occurs when a writer assumes that [a statement under dispute] is in fact true; such an argument [is circular].
tug at an audience’s heartstrings] to the point of [ignoring the fact], perhaps to keep the audience from [disagreeing with the writer].
Equivocation (splitting hairs
a statement that is [partially correct] but that [purposely obscured] the entire truth.
is an [inaccurate], [inappropriate], or [misleading] comparison between two things.
draws conclusions from [scanty evidence].
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
After this, therefore because of this: an argument assumes [causation] based on the [passing of time]`
An appeal to ignorance: an argument that claims something is [true or false] because there is [no evidence to prove otherwise].
Reductio Ad Absurdum
Reduction to the absurd: a disproof by showing that [consequences] of the proposition [are absurd]; or proof of a proposition by showing [its negation ] leads to [contradiction].
Guilt by Association:
occurs when someone connects an opponent to a demonized group of people or to a bad person in order to discredit his or her argument.
Appeal to Nature
because something is 'natural' it is therefore valid, justified, inevitable, good or ideal.
occurs when the link between premises and conclusion depends on some imagined causal connection that probably does not exist
Appeal to Authority
(argumentum ad verecundiam) Insisting that a claim is true simply because a valid authority or expert on the issue said it was true, without any other supporting evidence offered.
attempts to [distract] by shifting attention [important] important issue.