Flashcards in Logical reasoning Deck (61)
What are paradox questions?
Paradox asks you to provide an explanation for a pair of facts that seem to contradict each other. You need to identify how one answer could explain how these two ideas at the same time, be true. There are no arguments in paradox questions. The stimulus consists of facts. It means solve the discrepancy.
What are indicators of paradox questions?
RESOLVE OR DISCREPANCY OR EXPLANATION
How do you solve a paradox question?
Start with "How come?" Understand the two ideas and understand the contradiction. It just has to provide a possible explanation
What are method of argument questions?
They are asking what the strategy the author is using. How did the writer come to their argument?
What are indicators of method questions?
METHOD, IDENTIFY THE STRATEGY
1. The author does this...
2. The author responds by...
3. The author proceeds by...
4. The author argumentative technique...
How many strategies are there?
What are the strategies for method questions?
-generalization and specific argument
-big argument to a small argument
-going from the same side
3. Appeal to the authority
-lying is wrong because Plato said …
-this person has credibility
4. Ad hominem
-your attacking the person rather than the position
-ex: your argument is wrong because you lie often (not attacking the person, you are attacking their credibility)
- is a faulty argument
-the argument they are trying to make is attacking the person not the conclusion
-if this a happens, b has to happens
- benchmarks has to happen
-using definition to clarify or bolster their argument
- these are fish in the pond. beau fish are defined as this shape that is what we are seeing
7. Counter example
What are main idea/conclusion questions?
Straightforward. They are asking what is the conclusion of the argument.
How do you solve main idea questions?
Pick the overall conclusion.
1. which one of these are supporting the other one
2. intermediate conclusion
- identify as a conclusion
-thus, however, yet, on the other hand
-will have some kind of argumentative language
What are parallel reasoning questions?
Parallel reasoning questions are questions that ask you to match the reasoning with the answer choices.
What are indicators of parallel questions?
How do you solve parallel reasoning questions?
Best way to solve it is by identifying the conclusion and how there evidence comes to the conclusion.
How many types of conclusions are there?
1. Value judgement: Something is arguable/debatable. (Think "that is not the only option)
2.If then: if this is the case, this will happen
3. Prediction: they will predict something in the stimulus. May not be explicit. If this is the case, this will happen.
5. Assertion of facts: Cannot argue with facts. There is no personal bias involved in this.
6. Recommendation: author says a certain group or person should not/should do this for the following reasons.
What are point of issue questions?
These are disagreement questions. They are asking what is the two authors opinion. Pay attention to what the second person is disagreeing with?
What are indicators for point of issue questions?
How do you solve point of issue questions?
Solving Tree :)
1. Does person 1 have an opinion?
2. Does person 2 have an opinion?
3. Does person 2 agree or disagree?
What are sufficient assumption questions?
Sufficient answer questions are asking what answer out of all could completely fix the issue. The assumption can be big enough. It just has to work.
What are indicators of sufficient assumption questions?
JUSTIFY THE CONCLUSION
*Pay attention to "ed"
How do you solve sufficient assumption questions?
Bridge the gap between support and conclusion
Hone down the answer
Think about the trigger effect.
Put the answer at the end of the conclusion or argument and see if it works.
What are necessary assumption questions?
The necessary assumption is a piece of evidence that the argument needs but does not have. You are looking for the evidence that will make the argument fall apart. Just think about the PREMISE.
What are indicators of necessary assumption questions?
How to solve necessary assumption questions?
Negation means do the opposite. So whatever the conclusion is, do the opposite and find it in the answer choices. Remember the answer MUST be there. If it makes the conclusion fall apart, that is the answer
2. Look for shifts in logic
If the author provides evidence about one thing, and a conclusion about something else, that author has assumed there's a connection between those two things.
REMEMBER: If the conclusion can live without the answer choice, it's not the right answer!
What are parallel flawed questions?
Parallel flawed questions ask you to identify the flaw. The flaw and the conclusion has to be the same.
How do you solve parallel flawed questions?
You need to match the flaw from the stimulus to one of the answer choices.
How do you solve parallel flawed questions?
You need to match the flaw from the stimulus to one of the answer choices. But you need to know the different types of flaws.
How many flaws are there?
What are the flaws?
1. They are overlooking something
2.Causation (when one things affects the another)
3.Mismatch concepts (subjects are similar but not the same)
4.Mismatch representation (think 1 +1 cannot= 3)
5.Circular reasoning (evidence contradicts the conclusion)
6.Equivocation (using the same word or term inconsistently. Look at the evidence and conclusion)
7. Part vs whole (one does not mean all). you cannot conflate numbers and percentages.
8. Appeal to the authority (just because someone says something, does not mean its true)
9. Switching necessary to sufficient: you cannot do that. It can only be sufficient to necessary. Sufficient means it guarantees the truth of a condition but it not necessary (required) for it to happen. Necessary means it is required for it to happen. Ex. for a garden to be productive, you have to water, feed and sunlight.- Sufficient but does not mean giving it what it needs will make the garden productive. Overlooking something.
What are strengthen questions?
There is an assumption there that will fill the gap of the assumption. Something that will strengthen the authors point.
How do you solve strengthen questions?
Identify the flaw and conclusion. Find the one that strengthen the reasoning. Remember, wrong choices can also play the opposite role relative to what we need.
What are weaken questions?
Which one of these continue to exploit these flaws.
How to solve weaken questions?
Figure out what is wrong with the argument then find the answer choice that exploits the flaw.
What are role of statement questions?
Give a specific statement of phrase. Ask you to pick the answer choice that best describes the function of (typically) one sentence within the argument. The indicator is "which one of the following ways?"
What are role of principle questions?
The stimulus will contain a principle. Expect generalized answers, after all principle is just a rule generalized
How do you solve principle questions?
Figure out the principle. Expect generalized answers, after all principle is just a rule generalized
Principle tends to be less absolute and abstract
What are vulnerable to criticism questions?
They are asking why is this argument prone to criticism.
How do you solve vulnerable to criticism questions?
Figure out what the flaw is in the argument.
What are inference questions?
No blank line means inference question.
How to solve inference questions?
The answer is in the stimulus. What triggers the argument.
What and how do you solve except questions?
Anything but not this one. Eliminate the answers that are correct or align with the passage. The right answer will be the obvious wrong answer the is the opposite of the passage
What does "fail to consider" mean?
Forgets to think about.
Ask yourself: what are they considering?
What does "take for granted" mean?
A connection that does not exist
Ask yourself: is there a relationship?
What does "falsely assume"?
That there is a casual relationship.
Mistakes sufficient for necessary.
Ask yourself: are they assuming?
What does since mean?
Since means the evidence comes after it. The conclusion is right before since.
What is formal logic?
Formal logic is a set of rules for making deductions that seem self evident. It relates primarily to IF-THEN statements.
Things like any or all or every are words that indicate that you have formal logic
-answer it in a very specific way
-when you find a sufficient word, put IF before the
EX: IF X, THEN Y
-Solution: Know the words and negate each element of the statement.
EX: If the stir-fry has carrots or spinach, then it has peapods and peppers.
"If the stir-fry has no peapods or peppers…”
Then it means the stirfry has neither peapods or peppers
What are indicators of inference question?
Which one from the statement above, strongly supports
-LEFT TO RIGHT IS INFERENCE
What are indicators of strengthen question?
Which one below, most strongly supports STRENGTHEN
-RIGHT TO LEFT IS STRENGTHEN
What are parallel principle?
Match the principle with one of the answers.
How to solve parallel principle?
-find the principle
-look for something very general
-your answer will be a principle that your adding to it
-which one of the principle justifies the argument?
-principles are broad
Words that indicate sufficiency...
If-starts a sufficient condition
If this happens, this will be the result
No- negative counterparts
Words that indicate necessary result...
Words that guarantee?
How do you solve role of statement questions?
Find what they are saying in the stimulus.
Figure out the conclusion and the overall conclusion.
How does the statement or information factor into that.
What are indicators of role of statement?
What does premise mean?
Another word for evidence. if this happens, then the conclusion will follow
What does unless mean?
Unless is a formal logic word and sufficient word. Cross out unless and it becomes "if not".
What does only if mean?
Only if x,y,z = necessary
ex: The stir-fry has broccoli only if it has mushrooms
MEANS THE SAME THING AS...
If the salad has broccoli, then it has mushrooms.
What does "the only if"
The only if x,y,z= sufficient
What does "only if it has" means?
only if it has x,y,z...= necessary
What is an inference principle question?
Which one of the following principles can be concluded from above.
What does "IF" mean?
If is a sufficient element. IF is basically a condition. If this happens, then this will happen.
ex: The burger has mustard if it has onions.
SOLUTION: to interpret this question/statement flip it
If the burger has onions, then it has mustard.