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Flashcards in Long Answer Questions Deck (21):

Explain why despite significantly lowering dolphin mortality, "dolphin safe" labeling actually made tuna fisheries less sustainable

- label only implies that one particular fishing method was not used
- major U.S. producers catch tuna using Fish Aggregation Devices which have a high incidence of bycatch
- by purchasing a can of tuna that is "dolphin safe", you are encouraging more harmful fishing methods such as using FADs with a higher rate of bycatch of other marine species
- thus, tuna fisheries are less sustainable


Compare and contrast the political economy and market environmentalism approaches to solving environmental degradation in relation to Tuna fisheries. What does each approach say about the underlying cause of the depletion of the fish stocks and how to sustainably manage them?

Market environmentalism approach: "markets can solve the environmental problems" via eco labeling and green consumerism

Political economy approach: "capitalist production is the root cause of these problems", so markets cannot ever solve them.
--> capitalism cannot escape its own crises and contradictions... constant supply and demand and looking to create surplus

- impossible to understand our relationship with nature without considering the political economy


Briefly discuss how the contemporary organization of the Tuna fishery exemplifies a spatial fix to the second contradiction of capitalism

- Being successful at fishing (efficient in a profit driven system) destroys the availability of fish in the ocean
- Fishing has shifted to a horizontally integrated, geographically dispersed system (POST FORDIST)
- processes are carried out by different corporations (often in different countries)
- resource extraction, production and consumption are all flexible enough to move to new locations that offer higher profits
- INDUSTRY FOLLOWS FISH regardless of localized scarcity and depletion


Eco labeling and green consumerism describe the approach of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). Briefly describe their approach to certification of sustainable fisheries.

If a can has the MSC label, it means the product comes from a fishery that has been independently certified to the MSC's standard for a well-managed and sustainable fishery


List three critiques from concerned scientist and/or environmental organizations of the MSC's certification process

1. LOOSE WORDING of the criteria leads to overly generous certification of many unsustainable fisheries
2. INCENTIVES OF THE MARKET have led towards promoting the certification of capital-intensive corporations
3. SCORING of the fisheries and scoring system is both subjective and loosely interpreted in a way that favours granting new fisheries 'sustainable' status


Using examples from class, explain what is meant by 'nature is materially constructed' and 'nature is discursively constructed'

Material construction: interactions b/w the social, ecological and biophysical processes construct nature
--> ocean temperatures and burning fossil fuels

Discursive construction: ideas, representations and narratives
--> we see some feature of the world that seems to exist merely because we all assert and agree it does
--> swamps are frightening, lawless places


How are "Old Growth" forests socially constructed?

- old growth is associated with tree age or size or lack of human activity
--> problematic in areas where growth is slower and tree life spans are limited

- mystical or spiritual connotations associated with old growth forests
--> forests arouse strong emotions in people (leading to protest to stop the harvest of old growth forests)


What is the "forest transition theory"?

initial population growth and development in an area will cause deforestation at first, but as the economy changes and people migrate to urban areas the forest will recover


Describe and provide at least 1 critique of the "forest transition theory"

- many nations are experiencing deforestation with no sign of transition or recovery (soil contamination, changing climatic conditions, etc.)
- loss of original forest is undesirable (ecologically and socially)


What is the "accumulation by deforestation" theory?

deforestation in one area makes reforestation possible in other areas


Compare the forest transition theory to the accumulation by deforestation theory. How does each explain contemporary global patterns of deforestation?

DIFFERENCE is that one assumes reforestation is possible in the same area of original deforestation (forest transition) while other says it is possible in other areas (deforestation accumulation).
- not all deforested areas are capable of recovery due to impacts from development
- deforestation will prevail if trees are not being replenished at the same rate of deforestation


Using the example of agricultural transition in class, outline the process through which deforestation occurs according to the political economy approach

- land is communally owned and rights are hard to protect
- can legally or illegally claim large areas of communally owned land to clear for most efficient modes of production

--> small farm producers loose access to/control over land (forced to give up tenancy because unable to compete)
--> small farm producers stay on the land and try to compete = more clearing of land (deforestation) = more opportunity for cultivation = more money required to facilitate an increase in cultivation (CYCLE CONTINUES)


According to the political economy approach, what is the relationship between deforestation and wealth?

When more cash crops are produced and brought to the market, prices fall
--> producers have to produce more extensively (more land = deforestation) and intensively (more efficient = pesticides and fertilizers) to generate surplus value


How are deforestation and wealth connected to the process of "uneven development" and the spatial fix?

Economic growth is created from investments and profits made in deforesting tropical countries (2nd and 3rd world countries where larger surplus value can be achieved)
--> crisis of deforestation is simply MOVED AROUND (spatial fix)


Explain (using an example from class) why Impact and Benefit Agreements between industry and Indigenous communities need to be carefully understood within the problematic of settler colonialism

Tsilhqot'in vs BC
- Supreme Court of Canada found that where First Nations's title exists, First Nations are granted a declaration of title and a right to govern the lands
- Accordingly, consent from the First Nations must be obtained prior to the use of the land
--> Crown has an obligation to consult and accommodate the First Nations in accordance with the proportionate strength of the First Nations' claim to the land


What is Indigenous Jurisdiction and where does it come from?

- implies how Indigenous people are also SOVEREIGN
- Sovereignty over land was given to them by the CREATOR and predates the Crown in Canada (they were there first)
- Thus, inherent jurisdiction of that authority extends over their peoples and their traditional territories


Explain why and how Indigenous nations like Wet'suwet'en and Secwepemc pose a challenge for pipeline construction

- nations maintain INHERENT JURISDICTION over their lands, creating significant contestation and uncertainty
--> require consent before anything happens on or goes through their territory

- every month the project is delayed costs the company millions
- delay results in foregone revenue
- company loses value and faces rising interest rates


Responding to Kinder Morgan's suspension of "all non-essential" work on the TMEP, the oil and gas industry expressed anger at the provincial and federal governments stating that they were creating a business environment in which the rule of law was not respected. Explain why this statement is ironic.

IRONIC because they are not respecting/abiding by the law themselves
- Documents of law make the TMEP illegal because
First Nations maintain inherent jurisdiction over their lands
- collective consent is required for any access to the lands, waters and resources


What is the problematic of Settler Colonialism?

- competing jurisdictional authorities (Indigenous vs. Crown)
- State must have absolute jurisdictional authority (sovereignty) to guarantee rights and access to industry
--> jurisdictional authority cannot be challenged


How do Indigenous rights present a problem for the state in relation to creating a secure business and investment climate for resource extraction?

State needs to limit UNCERTAINTY because the industry needs clear, bankable resource rights
--> states role is to provide access to the Indigenous lands and resources
--> Indigenous rights threaten investment confidence, ability to raise capital and guarantee profits


Materials examined in class suggest that the Crown is reluctant to recognize Indigenous jurisdiction and title in the context of resource extraction and governance. Given this reluctance, consider the role that Impact and Benefit Agreements play from the point of view of both industry and state.

Industry likes IBA's because it allows them access to the lands and resources further allowing them to raise capital and guarantee profits
--> a way of 'tricking' Indigenous communities into thinking that giving them access will directly benefit them when in reality, it just opens up the floodgates for further exploitation

State enjoys IBA's because it gives them incentive to do this continuously (makes it look like they are trying to benefit both parties)
--> industry will be able to attract investors
--> more profit = more tax money