Long Test #1 Flashcards Preview

CHEM 10.01 > Long Test #1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Long Test #1 Deck (86)
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1
Q

systemic study of everything

A

science

2
Q

everchanging pool of knowledge

A

science

3
Q

method of conducting scientific experiments

A

scientific method

4
Q

educated guess that can be accepted or rejected

A

hypothesis

5
Q

physical representation of scientific phenomena

A

models

6
Q

statement generated from multiple observations that explain scientific phenomena

A

laws

7
Q

tentative explanations to scientific phenomena

A

theories

8
Q

uses models/theories/laws and relates them to hypothesis

A

data analysis

9
Q

sciences that deal with the physical world

A

hard sciences

10
Q

sciences that deal with intangible aspects of nature

A

soft sciences

11
Q

studies that are inherently true but have no basis in scientific principles

A

pseudoscience

12
Q

studies that are biased and flawed

A

bad science

13
Q

science interpreted in lay terms for a general audience

A

pop science

14
Q

the science of matter

A

chemistry

15
Q

state with definite volume and shape

A

solid

16
Q

state with definite volume, indefinite shape

A

liquid

17
Q

state with indefinite volume and shape

A

gas

18
Q

distinct form in state of matter; separation in relation to state

A

phase

19
Q

refers to particle distance of matter

A

state

20
Q

most basic form of matter, can be found in the periodic table

A

elements

21
Q

fixed ratio of 2+ elements

A

compounds

22
Q

combination of substances with a uniform appearance, cannot be separated

A

homogenous mixture

23
Q

combination of substances with an inconsistent appearance, can be separated

A

heterogenous mixture

24
Q

properties that don’t change the composition of matter

A

physical

25
Q

reactions that change composition

A

chemical

26
Q

unit standard that we use to measure today

A

International System of Units (SI Units)

27
Q

how close a measurement is to the true value

A

accuracy

28
Q

how close a measurement is to other data points

A

precision

29
Q

measurement with some degree of error

A

uncertainty

30
Q

alternative method of expressing big/small numbers

A

scientific notation

31
Q

digits that give information on the precision of a unit

A

significant figures

32
Q

smallest unit of mass

A

atoms

33
Q

when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the 2nd elements that combine with the first element can be reduced to small whole numbers

A

law of multiple proportions

34
Q

a specific compound will always contain the exact same ratio (proportion) of elements by mass

A

law of definite proportions

35
Q

matter cannot be created nor destroyed

A

law of conservation of mass

36
Q

subatomic particle with a negative charge

A

electrons

37
Q

subatomic particle with a positive charge

A

protons

38
Q

subatomic particle with a neutral charge

A

neutrons

39
Q

the number of protons

A

atomic number

40
Q

the number of protons and neutrons

A

atomic mass

41
Q

number of protons minus the number of electrons

A

charge

42
Q

atoms of an element with a different MASS

A

isotopes

43
Q

atoms of an element with a different CHARGE

A

ions

44
Q

ion with more protons

A

cation

45
Q

ion with more electrons

A

anion

46
Q

atoms as solid spheres; based on the Ancient Greek notion that atoms are indivisible

A

Dalton Model

47
Q

plum pudding model; there are smaller particles (electrons) surrounded in a positively charged cloud of space (cathode ray particles)

A

Thomson Model

48
Q

gold foil experiment suggests that most of the atom is empty space, addition of the nucleus surrounded by electrons in the model

A

Rutherford Model

49
Q

planetary model; electrons move around nucleus in orbits of fixed sizes, theory of quantized energy (line specrta of hydrogen gas)

A

Bohr Model

50
Q

electrons don’t move in set paths, but in WAVES, only orbitals can dictate possible locations of an electron (wave-particle duality)

A

Schrödinger Model

51
Q

organization of the 118 elements

A

periodic table

52
Q

triadic relationship according to atomic mass

A

Law of Triads

53
Q

theory that every 8th element has similar properties

A

law of octaves

54
Q

father of the periodic table

A

Dmitri Mendeleev

55
Q

underrated periodic table maker

A

Lothar Meyer

56
Q

columns in a periodic table

A

groups

57
Q

rows in the periodic table

A

periods

58
Q

group 1 metals; extremely reactive

A

alkali metals

59
Q

group 2 metals; reactive but not as much as grp 1

A

alkaline earth metals

60
Q

top row of the separated elements in the table

A

lanthanides

61
Q

bottom row of the separated elements in the table

A

actinides

62
Q

groups 3-12 in the main table

A

transition metals

63
Q

group 17; chemically reactive nonmetals

A

halogens

64
Q

last group of stable, nonreactive elements

A

noble gases

65
Q

good conductors of heat and electricity

A

metals

66
Q

poor conductors of heat and electricity

A

nonmetals

67
Q

elements with a mix of metallic and nonmetallic properties

A

metalloids

68
Q

distance between the nucleus and the farthest electron

A

atomic radius

69
Q

energy needed to attract an electron

A

ionization energy

70
Q

tendency to attract electrons

A

electronegativity

71
Q

state where the atom is at the lowest energy level

A

ground state

72
Q

when an atom is above ground state

A

excited state

73
Q

2 electrons

A

s shell

74
Q

6 electrons

A

p shell

75
Q

10 electrons

A

d shell

76
Q

14 electrons

A

f shell

77
Q

principle that states that electrons fill orbitals with the lowest energy level first

A

Aufbau Principle

78
Q

outermost shell number (n)

A

principal quantum number

79
Q

shape of orbital (l)

A

angular momentum quantum number

80
Q

number of orbitals within a subshell (Ml)

A

magnetic quantum numbers

81
Q

direction of electron spin

A

spin quantum number

82
Q

electrons that are in the outermost shell

A

valence electrons

83
Q

atoms that don’t bond :(

A

core electrons

84
Q

bonding between a metal and a nonmetal

A

ionic bonding

85
Q

bonding between nonmetals

A

covalent bonds

86
Q

sharing of valence electrons amongst positively charged metals

A

metallic bonding