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Biomechanics II > Lower Cervical > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lower Cervical Deck (26)
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1

Where is the nucleus of the disc located in the lower cervical

slightly posterior to center

2

What is the SROM of the flexion/extension for lower cervicals

average of 15˚ per segment
Greatest in mid cervicals
lowest at C7-T1

3

What is the IAR for flexion/extension of the lower cervicals

anterior portion of the subadjacent vertebra

4

What is the pattern of motion during flexion/extension in the lower cervicals

coupled translation is greater in the upper cervical spine than in the lower which gives the lower a steeper arch compared to the upper

5

What happens as the facet slide apart/together in flexion/extension

Flexion: stretching, gapping
Extension: maximal compression at the inferior margins, with som distraction at the superior margins

6

Whats the SROM for lower cervicals in lateral flexion

7-8˚

7

Whats the pattern of motion for lateral flexion in the lower cervicals

Lateral bending coupled with ipsilateral axial rotation
--degree of coupled rotation decreases in a cephalic to caudal direction

8

What happens at the joint articulation of the lower cervicals during lateral flexion

inferior facet glides down and medially on the side of lateral flexion, and up and laterally on the contralateral side

9

What is the SROM of rotation in the lower cervicals


This significantly decreases at C7-T1

10

What is the IAR for rotation of the lower cervicals

contralateral subadjacent vertebral body

11

What is the pattern of motion in rotation of the lower cervicals

Predominately axial rotation coupled with ipsilateral lateral flexion
--though not as strong as the coupled rotation noted with cervical lateral flexion

12

What occurs at the joint articulation during rotation of the lower cervicals

ipsilateral inferior facet rides down and medially
contralateral inferior facet rides up and laterally

13

What is the normal movement that causes movement in the cervical spine

movement of the head

14

What muscles initiate flexion of the lower cervicals

concentric activity of the anterior cervical muscles

15

What muscles control flexion in the cervical spine

eccentric activity of the semispinalis, longissimus, and splenius

16

What limits flexion in the lower cervicals

eccentric motion from posterior muscles
elastic limits of myofascial tissue
ligaments
joint capsule
posterior IVD distraction
anterior IVD compression
chin hitting chest

17

What muscles initiate extension of the lower cervicals

concentric activity of posterior cervical muscles

18

What controls the extension of the lower cervicals

eccentric activity of SCM, scaleni, and longus capitis

19

What limits extension in the lower cervicals

eccentric activity of the anterior muscles
elastic limits of myofascial tissue
anterior IVD distraction
posterior IVD distraction
ALL
Joint capsule
facet joint approximation

20

What initiates lateral flexion in the lower cervicals

ipsilateral concentric contraction of the lateral flexors

21

What is lateral flexion of the lower cervicals controlled by

contralateral eccentric contraction of lateral flexors

22

What limits lateral flexion of the lower cervicals

contralateral eccentric muscle activity
elastic limits of the myofascial tissue
tension of contralateral joint capsule
contralateral IVD distraction
Ipsilateral IVD compression
Ipsilateral facet joint approximation

23

What initiates rotation of the lower cervicals

ipsilateral splenius capitis, cervicis, and longissimus cervicis
contralateral semispinalis cervicis, SCM

24

What controls rotationof the lower cervicals

contralateral spenius capitis and cervicis, longissimus cervicis
ipsilateral semispinalis cervicis, scaleni, and SCM

25

What limits rotation of the lower cervicals

capsular and periarticular ligaments
segmental muscles
facet joints

26

What muscles produce contralateral rotation

multifidus, rotatores