Lower Limbs - Bones and Joints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower Limbs - Bones and Joints Deck (58):
1

Pelvis

Complete ring of bone

2

Pelvic 'ring phenomenon'

Pelvis often breaks in two places, as it is a compete ring of bone

3

Orientation of lower limb flexor compartment

Posterior

4

Muscles attaching to ileum

Gluteal muscles

5

Muscles attaching to pubis bone

Adductors

6

Muscles attaching to ischeum

Hamstrings

7

Largest bone in the body

Femur

8

Main femoral trabeculae

2 main trabeculae:
- Upward-facing in head
- Sideways in neck

9

Weightbearing bone of leg

Tibia

10

Non-weightbearing bone of leg

Fibula

11

Role of fibula

Muscle attachments

12

What is the shin?

Anterior surface of tibial shaft

13

Structure of superior tibia

Tibial plateau

14

Role of tibial plateau

Articular surface for knee joint

15

Location of trochlea for ankle joint

Distal tibia

16

Structure on distal tibia

Trochlea of ankle joint

17

Which bone is responsible for the medial malleous?

Tibia

18

What are the lateral and medial mallei?

Bumps on ankle

19

Bone responsible for lateral malleus?

Fibula

20

Roles of lateral and medial mallei?

Stabilise ankle joint
Collateral ligaments

21

Largest and strongest tarsal bones

Talus and calcaneus

22

Unique features of the foot
1)
2)

1) Non-opposable big toe
2) Foot arch

23

Anterior capsular ligament in hip

Iliofemoral ligament

24

Location of stronger capsular ligaments in hip

Anterior

25

Location of weaker capsular ligaments in hip

Posterior

26

Movement that tightens and spirals iliofemoral ligament

Extension

27

Effect of extension on iliofemoral joint

Tightens, spirals ligament, increasing stability

28

Nerve endangered in posterior iliofemoral dislocation

Sciatic nerve

29

Why fracture can lead to avascular necrosis of femoral head

Vessels anastamose across femoral head, and can be torn if break occurs

30

Complications of breaking femoral neck

Avascular necrosis of femoral head

31

Number of tarsal bones

Seven

32

Number of carpal bones

Eight

33

Marching fracture

Stress fracture of second metatarsal

34

Location of sesamoid bones in foot

Two under big toe

35

Role of sesamoid bones in big toe

Provide passage for nerves, blood vessels

36

Where does the femoral artery run through the hip?

Medial to hip joints

37

Position of leg when femoral neck is broken

Leg externally rotated, pulled towards torso

38

Number of synovial joints in knee capsule

Two

39

Joints within the knee capsule

Tibiofemoral
Patellofemoral

40

Is the knee a hinge joint?

No. Some rotation is permitted

41

Pairs of structures that primarily reinforce knee joint:
1)
2)
3)

1) Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments
2) Medial and lateral collateral ligaments
3) Medial and lateral menisci

42

Reasons for knee joint incongruence

Round femoral condyles
Flat tibial surfaces

43

Most vulnerable position for knee

Flexed and rotated

44

ACL and PCL are what kind of ligament?

Intracapsular ligaments

45

Insertions of ACL

Front of tibia, lateral condyle of femur

46

Insertions of PCL

Back of tibial, medial condyle of femur

47

Movements prevented by ACL

Tibia sliding forward relative to femur

48

Movements prevented by PCL

Tibia sliding backwards relative to femur

49

Tendon often used to repair torn ACL

Patellar tendon

50

Forces resisted by knee collateral ligaments

Lateral forces

51

Which knee collateral ligament is more commonly injured?

Medial collateral ligament

52

Reason for increased incidence of knee medial collateral ligament injury

Deep fibers blend with medial meniscus of knee, limits movement of medial collateral ligament compared to lateral collateral ligament

53

Position of lateral collateral knee ligament

Separated from lateral meniscus by popiteus tendon

54

Roles of knee menisci
1)
2)
3)

1) Absorb shock
2) Spread synovial fluid
3) Increase articular surface by ~1/3

55

Origin of nerves supplying knee menisci

Knee capsule

56

Normal patellofemoral alignment maintained by:
1)
2)
3)

1) Vastus medialis muscle
2) Medial patellar retinaculum
3) Raised lip of on lateral femoral condyle

57

Q angle

Angle between quadriceps tendon and patellar tendon

58

Most common ankle injuries

Inversion strains of lateral collateral ligament