Upper Limbs - Bones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Upper Limbs - Bones Deck (31):
1

Basic mammalian form of upper limb

Limb girdle attached to axial skeleton

1 proximal bone 2 distal bones

Pentadactyl hand (thumb rotated 90 degrees in humans)

2

Role of scapula

Muscle attachments to shoulder joint

3

Role of clavicle

Attaches shoulder girdle to axial skeleton

4

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5

Joints of clavicle

Acromioclavicular joint

Sternoclavicular joint

6

Common locations of clavicular fracture

Between lateral 1/3 and medial 2/3

7

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12

Role of bicipital groove

Houses biceps tendon

13

What links the radius and ulna bones?

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Interosseus membrane

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14

Main humeral fracture sites

Surgical neck, mid-shaft, suprachondylar

15

Colles fracture

Fracture of distal radius.  Often from falling onto outstretched hand.

16

Effect of broken scaphoid

Because of unusual blood supply, proximal scaphoid becomes ischaemic, necrotic.

17

Parry fracture

Mid-shaft break of ulna

18

Features of stable joints

1)

2)

3)

 

1) Congruent articular surfaces

2) Tight capsule, strong capsular ligaments

3) LImited range of motion

19

Features of unstable joints

1)

2)

3)

1) Incongruent articular surfaces

2) Stability often reliant on fixator muscles

3) Prone to dislocation or subluxation

20

Features of sternoclavicular joint

1)

2)

3)

1) Interosseus disc

2) Very strong capsule

3) Costoclavicular ligament (main limiter of movement)

21

Main features of acromioclavicular joint

1)

2)

 

 

1) Weak capsule

2) Main stabiliser is the coracoclavicular ligament (prevents upward rotation of clavicle)

22

Structures increasing stability of shoulder joint

1)

2)

3)

1) Glenoid labrum

2) Long head of biceps

3) Rotator cuff muscles

23

Rotator cuff muscles

1)

2)

3)

4)

1) Supraspinatus

2) Infraspinatus

3) Subscapularis

4) Teres minor

24

Location of subscromial bursa

Beneath acromial process. Prone to irritaiton during shoulder abduction.

25

Most common direction that shoulder dislocates in

Humerous pushed anteriorally, drops downwards

26

Place of shoulder joint instability

Little muscle inferior to shoulder joint.

Hence most common dislocation is anteriorally inferiorally

27

Endangered structures with shoulder dislocation

Axillary nerve. 

28

Where do elbow collateral ligaments join?

Medial and lateral epicondiles

29

Motions of a pivot joint

Pronate, supernate

30

Joint around which forearm rotates

Proximal radio-ulnar joint (radius rotates around ulna)

31

What is the name of a break of the distal radius?

Often from falling onto an outstretched hand.

Colle's fracture