Lower Respiratory Tract Infections-Kozel Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections-Kozel Deck (271)
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1

What is the infection of the tonsils?
What is a "sore throat" or infection of the pharynx?
What is an infection of the trachea?
What is an infection of the larynx?
What is an infection of the small airways- the bronchioles?
What is an infection of the larynx?
What is an inflammation of the pleura often caused by an infection?
What is an infection of the large airways-the bronchi?

-tonsilitis
-pharyngitis
-tracheitis
-laryngitis
-bronchiolitis
-laryngitis
-pleurisy
-bronchitis

2

What mostly causes bronchitis?
Bronchiolitis?

Viruses
Viruses (RSV 50-90%)

3

What is this:
Inflammation of lungs caused by microbial infection of the alveoli and surrounding lung; present for days

Acute pneumonia

4

What is this:
Characterized by moderate amounts of sputum, absence of physical findings of consolidation, only moderate elevation of WBC, and lack of alveolar exudates

atypical pneumonia

5

What is this:
Inflammation of lungs caused by microbial infection of the alveoli and surrounding lung or non-infecious causes; present for weeks to months

Chronic pneumonia

6

What is this:
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity

Pleural effusion and empyema

7

What is this:
infection causing necrosis of lung parenchyma

Bacterial lung abscess

8

What are three factors in development of pneumonia?

-Defect in host defenses
-Exposure to particularly virulent microbe
-Overwhelming inoculum

(can involve one or more of the above)

9

What are the pulmonary host defenses in the nasopharynx?

Nasal hair
Anatomy of upper airways
Mucocilliary apparatus

10

What are the pulmonary host defenses in the oropharynx?

Saliva
Cough
Bacterial inferference

11

What are the pulmonary host defenses in the trachea and bronchi?

Cough, epiglottal reflexes
Mucocilliary apparatus
Airway surface liquid (lysozyme (kills peptidoglycan in cell wall of gram positive, lactoferrin (binds iron that bugs need)

12

What are the pulmonary host defenses in the terminal airways and alveoli?

Alveolar lining fluid (surfactant, fibronectin, iron-binding proteins)
Alveolar macrophages
Neutrophil recruitment

13

How can alterations in level of consciousness impair pulmonary defenses?

Stroke, seizures, drug intoxication, anesthesia, alcohol abuse can
compromise epiglottic closure → aspiration of oropharyngeal flora

14

How can cigarette smoke impair pulmonary defenses?

Disrupts mucociliary function
Disrupts macrophage activity

15

How can alcohol abuse impair pulmonary defenses?

-Impairs cough and epiglottic reflexes
-Increased colonization of oropharynx with gram-negative bacilli
-Decreased cellular responses

16

How can infection (M. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, viruses) impair pulmonary defenses?

-Interfere with or destroy cilia
-Defective cell function

17

What are the iatrogenic manipulations that bypasses or interfere with host defenses?

Endotracheal tubes
Nasogastric tubes
Respiratory therapy machinery

18

How come older patients have impaired pulmonary defenses?

Increased number and severity of underlying diseases
Less effective mucociliary clearance and coughing
Increased microaspiration
Immune senescence

19

What are underlying disease that can impair pulmonary defenses?

COPD
Immune deficiencies
Asplenia
Others

20

What causes community-acquired acute pneumonia?

1st line:
-Strep pneumonia (MOST COMMON)
-Legionella Pneumophila
-Klebsiella pneumoniae
2nd line:
-H. influenzae
-Staph aureus
-Pseudomonas spp.

21

Bacteria in the mouth are (blank)

anearobes (and most are gram neg)

22

What causes community-acquired atypical pneumonia?

1st line:
-Mycoplasma pneumonia
2nd line:
-Chlamydia spp. (C. pneumoniae, C. psittaci, C. trachomatis)

23

What causes hospital-acquired pneumoni?

1st line:
-Klebsiella spp
-Legionella pneumophilia
2nd line:
-Pseudomonas spp
-Staph aureus

24

What causes chronic pneumonia?

-nocardia
-Mycobacterium tuberculosis
-Atypical mycobacteria,
-Histoplasma capsulatum
-Coccidioides immitis
-Blastomyces dermatitidis

25

What causes necrotizing pneumonia and lung abscess?

1st line:
Klebsiella pneumoniae
2nd line:
Staph aureus

26

What causes pneumonia in immunocompromised host?

-Pneumocystis jiroveci (associated with AIDS)
-Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare

27

What is this:
Exposure to contaminated aerosols, e.g., air coolers, hospital water supply

Legionnaires' disease

28

What is this:
Exposure to goat hair, raw wool, animal hides

Anthrax

29

What is this:
Ingestion of unpasteurized milk

Brucellosis

30

What is this:
Exposure to bat droppings (caving) or dust from soil enriched with bird droppings

Histoplasmosis