Pulmonary Neoplasms-Barsky Flashcards Preview

Block 9 Week 3 > Pulmonary Neoplasms-Barsky > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pulmonary Neoplasms-Barsky Deck (93)
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1

What is the most common cancer found in the lungs?

metastasis from breast, colorectal and endometrial carcinomas; and soft tissue and bone sarcomas and skin melanomas

2

The (blank) can also be a site of metastasis to the lungs, especially from breast cancer and ovarian cancer (transcoelomic spread)

pleura

3

Why is it important to distinguish a metastasis from a primary lung cancer?

Staging
-if primary Stage 1-4 but confined to lung then stage 1-2
-if metastasis stage 4
Prognosis and therapy

4

How do you distinguish between metastasis and primary lung cancer?

-Microscopic appearance
-Multiple v solitary lesion (not always discriminatory)
-Presence of precursor lesions (mets do not have precursor lesions)
-Organ specific immunocytochemistry
-Molecular profiling

5

What cancer is most common in men? What cancer kills the most men?

Prostate
LUNG CANCER
BUT its been decreasing since 1990
**Having the disease is almost predicition of dying from it**

6

What is the most common cancer in women? What cancer kills the most women? Has it changed as of late?

Breast
lung cancer
Slight decrease but not by much

7

What are the causes (etiologies) of human cancer?
What are the 2 most dramatic causes of lung cancer?

-ENVIRONMENTAL CARCINOGENS
-UV RADIATION
-OTHER IONIZING RADIATION
-VIRUSES
-LIFESTYLE, DIET, IMMUNE STATUS
-HEREDITARY FACTORS OR GENES
-UNKNOWN

Environmental carcinogens and ionizing radiation!

8

If you alter smoking you can alter what?

the incidence and mortality of lung cancer

9

How do chemical carcinogens lead to lung cancer?

Acts by forming DNA adducts which give rise to mutations; if mutations occur in hot spots, spots which change gene expression or protein, mutations can be carcinogenic; if mutations occur in introns or junk DNA or in the non-coding strand they can be harmless

10

If you quit smoking, do you reduce the likelihood of getting cancer?

if you smoke and quit you have declining risk of lung cancer but have an increased risk of disease as compared to a non smokers because you don’t lose all your DNA adducts

11

T or F
If you quit at a younger age you will have a greater benefit from smoking cessation

T

12

How does ionizing radiation (i.e radon) cause cancer?

-forms DNA adducts
-causes single and double strand breaks

13

Next to smoking which is clearly the leading cause of lung cancer, the next leading cause of lung cancer is (blank). How do you reduce these levels?
If you get away from radon, can you reduce your risk of cancer?

RADON.
air ventilation (check houses for this)

no because once you have a strand break you cannot repair this

14

What are the 5 basic categories of oncogens?

-Growth factors
-growth factor receptors
-signal transducing proteins
-nuclear transcription factors
-cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases

15

What are the four types of protooncogene functions?

Growth inhibitory factors
Molecules that regulate cell adhesion
Molecules that regulate signal transduction
Molecules which regulate nuclear transcription and cell cycle

16

What is the most important oncogene that causes lung cancer? How can we counteract this?

HER-1 (EGFR)
-block the tyrosine kinase domain in HER1

17

In malignancies, overexpression or dysregulation of EGFR may increase the signaling response and result in....?

-increased invasion and metastasis
-increased survival
-increase angiogenesis
-increased proliferation
-decreased apoptosis

18

(blank) is one of the most commonly mutated genes seen in virtually all types of human canceres.

TP53

19

What does TP53 do? If DNA cannot be repaired, apoptosis genes such as (blank) are induced.
Is it predictive for lung cancer?

Senses DNA damage arresting cell in GI and induces DNA repair

BAX

-no

20

TP53 increases (blank) preventing phosphorylation of RB
It also induces (blank) which aids in DNA repair.

CDKI p21 (CDKN1A)
GAD45

21

What type of tumor is this:
apex of the lung; invades sympathetic ganglion chain (unilateral sympathetic blockade to the face); rare. Anatomical description is important in terms of presentation.

pancoast tumor

22

What type of lung tumor is this:
easiest to diagnose by bronchoscopy

Central

23

What type of lung tumor is this:
diagnose via needle aspiration. Most common.

Peripheral lung tumor

24

What is the clinical presentation of central lung cancer?

cough, chest pain, hemoptysis, sputum

25

What is the clinical presentation of mid-zonal lung cancer?

chest pain

26

What is the clinical presentation of peripheral lung cancer?

Typically silent, pickd up incidentally on chest x ray or CT scan

27

What is the clinical presentation of pancoat tumor?

-horner's synrome (ptosis, enophthalmos, miosis, anhidrosis) due to invasion of sympathetic ganglion and chain

28

There are OVER (blank) TYPES OF PRIMARY LUNG CANCER BUT MOST TYPES ARE MINOR TYPES THAT WE DO NOT THINK OF WHEN WE THINK OF PRIMARY LUNG CANCER (i.e. lymphoma, sarcoma, etc.).

70

29

What are the major types of lung cancer?

-small cell carcinoma
-non-small cell carcinoma

30

What are the three types of non-small cell carcinoma?

-squamos cell carcinoma
-large cell undifferentiated carcinoma
-adenocarcinoma