Lumbar, Thoracic, Ribs, Vertebra Mechanics (Lecture) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lumbar, Thoracic, Ribs, Vertebra Mechanics (Lecture) Deck (45)
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1

Describe the curvatures of the 

 

Cervical

Thoracic

Lumbar

Sacrum

2

Whta vertebra is this?

Thoracic

3

What vertebra is this?

Lumbar vertebra

4

What are the spinous processes used for?

Attachment points for ligaments and muscles of the spine

5

Explain the rule of 3's 

6

Mneumonic for remembering superior facet orientation?

BUM- BUL- BM 

 

Cervical: Backward, upward, medial 

Thoracic: Backward, upward, lateral 

Lumbar: Backward, medial

7

Label the spine

8

Function of: 

 

Anterior longitudinal ligament

Limits extension

9

Function of: 

 

Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

Resists hyperflexion

 

Prevents posterior herniation of nucleus pulposus

10

Function of: 

 

Ligamentum Flava?

Connect the laminae of adjacent vertebra

11

What are these muscles?

1 = Rotatores breves

 

2 = Rotatores longi

12

Function of roatores ms?

Bilaterally: Extends thoracic spine

 

Unilateral: Rotates thoracic spine to opposite direction

13

Label this m. 

Multifidus m. 

14

Function of multifidus m.?

Bilateral: extends spine

 

Unilateral: flexes spine to same side, rotates it to opposite side 

15

Label the ms

4 = Semispinalis capitis 

 

5 = Semispinalis cervicis 

 

6 = Semispinalis thoracis 

16

Function of semispinalis ms?

Bilateral: Extends  thoracic and cervical spines and head 

 

 

Unilateral: Bends head, cervical and thoracic spines to same siderotates to opposite side

17

Define: 

 

Coupled motion

Association of a motion along or about one axis that in turn induces motion about or along a 2nd axis 

 

 

*The principle motion cannot be produced without the associated motion occuring as well

18

Define: 

 

Linkage

Relationship of joint mechanics with surrounding structures

 

*By linking multiple structures together ----> increased ROM

19

Barriers

 

What is the physiologic barrier?

Limit of active motion

20

Barriers

 

What is the anatomic barrier?

Limit of motion imposed by anatomic structure

Limit of passive motion

21

Barriers

 

What is the elastic barrier?

Range between the physiologic and anatomic barrier of motion in which passive ligamentous stretching occurs before tissue disruption

22

Barriers

 

What is the restrictive barrier?

Functional limit within the anatomic range of motion 

 

Abnormally diminishes the normal physiologic range

23

How are physiologic, anatomic and elastic barriers applied to vertebral movements?

24

Why does spinal somatic dysfunction matter?

-Reduce efficiency 

 

-Impair flow of fluids

 

-Alter nerve function

 

-Create structural imbalance

25

Fryette Mechanics: 

 

What is the major mneumonic associated with type one mechanics?

TONGO 

 

T: Type 

O: One

N: Neutral 

G: Group

O: Opposite 

26

Freyette Mechanics:

 

What is the mneumonic for type two mechanics?

T | Type 2

O | (non neutral)

S | single segment

S | same direction 

27

What is fryette's 3rd principle?

Initiating movement of a vertebral segment in any plane of motion will modify the movement of that segment in other planes of motion

 

 

*If motion is restricted = motion will also be restricted in other directions

 

*If motion is improved = in one direction, motion will imrpove in other directions

28

Summarize Fryette's Principles

 

1

2

3

29

Axis and Planes of motion

 

Which plane AND axis is responsible for the following motions?

- Rotation

-Sidebending

-Flexion/Extension

30

Spinal landmarks: 

State the vertebral region at these landmarks

 

Spine of the scapula

Inferior angle of the scapula 

Iliac crest

Spine of the scapula = T3

 

Inferior angle of the scapula = T7 / T8 

 

Iliac crest = L4

31

How do we name scoliosis? 

Name toward the convexity!!!

 

Levo= left

Dextro = right 

32

What is that special angle related to the severity of scoliosis?

Cobb angle 

33

Cobb angle complications

 

What occurs with a cobb angle greater than...

 

>50

>75

Respiratory compromise >50

 

Cardiac compromise >75

34

What is the straight leg test?

35

Impingement of L5 would cause: 

 

 

Pt. cannot walk on heels

 

Cannot dorsiflex

36

Impingement of S1 would cause: 

Inability to walk on toes

 

Inability to plantarflex

37

What is spinal stenosis?

38

What is cauda equina syndrome

39

What are the three types of spina bifida in a progressively severe order?

40

What is sacralization?

One or both TP's of L5 are long and articulate with the sacrum 

41

What is lumbarization?

Failure of S1 to fuse with the rest of the sacrum (rare)

 

 

42

What is spondylosis?

Bony spurs

43

What is spondylolysis?

 

What is the major X-ray hallmark of this?

"Scotty dog fracture"

44

What is spondylolesthesis?

Slipping of one vertebra on another 

45