Describe the curvatures of the
Whta vertebra is this?
What vertebra is this?
What are the spinous processes used for?
Attachment points for ligaments and muscles of the spine
Explain the rule of 3's
Mneumonic for remembering superior facet orientation?
BUM- BUL- BM
Cervical: Backward, upward, medial
Thoracic: Backward, upward, lateral
Lumbar: Backward, medial
Label the spine
Anterior longitudinal ligament
Posterior Longitudinal Ligament
Prevents posterior herniation of nucleus pulposus
Connect the laminae of adjacent vertebra
What are these muscles?
1 = Rotatores breves
2 = Rotatores longi
Function of roatores ms?
Bilaterally: Extends thoracic spine
Unilateral: Rotates thoracic spine to opposite direction
Label this m.
Function of multifidus m.?
Bilateral: extends spine
Unilateral: flexes spine to same side, rotates it to opposite side
Label the ms
4 = Semispinalis capitis
5 = Semispinalis cervicis
6 = Semispinalis thoracis
Function of semispinalis ms?
Bilateral: Extends thoracic and cervical spines and head
Unilateral: Bends head, cervical and thoracic spines to same side, rotates to opposite side
Association of a motion along or about one axis that in turn induces motion about or along a 2nd axis
*The principle motion cannot be produced without the associated motion occuring as well
Relationship of joint mechanics with surrounding structures
*By linking multiple structures together ----> increased ROM
What is the physiologic barrier?
Limit of active motion
What is the anatomic barrier?
Limit of motion imposed by anatomic structure
Limit of passive motion
What is the elastic barrier?
Range between the physiologic and anatomic barrier of motion in which passive ligamentous stretching occurs before tissue disruption
What is the restrictive barrier?
Functional limit within the anatomic range of motion
Abnormally diminishes the normal physiologic range
How are physiologic, anatomic and elastic barriers applied to vertebral movements?
Why does spinal somatic dysfunction matter?
-Impair flow of fluids
-Alter nerve function
-Create structural imbalance
What is the major mneumonic associated with type one mechanics?
What is the mneumonic for type two mechanics?
T | Type 2
O | (non neutral)
S | single segment
S | same direction
What is fryette's 3rd principle?
Initiating movement of a vertebral segment in any plane of motion will modify the movement of that segment in other planes of motion
*If motion is restricted = motion will also be restricted in other directions
*If motion is improved = in one direction, motion will imrpove in other directions
Summarize Fryette's Principles
Axis and Planes of motion
Which plane AND axis is responsible for the following motions?
State the vertebral region at these landmarks
Spine of the scapula
Inferior angle of the scapula
Spine of the scapula = T3
Inferior angle of the scapula = T7 / T8
Iliac crest = L4
How do we name scoliosis?
Name toward the convexity!!!
Dextro = right
What is that special angle related to the severity of scoliosis?
Cobb angle complications
What occurs with a cobb angle greater than...
Respiratory compromise >50
Cardiac compromise >75
What is the straight leg test?
Impingement of L5 would cause:
Pt. cannot walk on heels
Impingement of S1 would cause:
Inability to walk on toes
Inability to plantarflex
What is spinal stenosis?
What is cauda equina syndrome
What are the three types of spina bifida in a progressively severe order?
What is sacralization?
One or both TP's of L5 are long and articulate with the sacrum
What is lumbarization?
Failure of S1 to fuse with the rest of the sacrum (rare)
What is spondylosis?
What is spondylolysis?
What is the major X-ray hallmark of this?
"Scotty dog fracture"
What is spondylolesthesis?
Slipping of one vertebra on another