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Flashcards in Lungs volume and sounds Deck (30)
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1

auscultation of lung sounds

- plcae the diaphragm of tehstethoscope in firm contact with the pt's unclothed chest wall
-start at the apices and work downward, comparing symmterical points sequentially
- have the patient breathe in and out through the mouth, a little deeper than normal
- listen to at least one cycle of ins[iration and expiration in each pulmonary segment

2

tracheal and bronchial sounds

- loud tubular sounds normally heard over the trachea
- inspiratory phase is shorter than the expiratory phase and there is a slight pause between them

3

abnormal bronchial sounds

- heard over distal airways are abnormal and represent consolidation or compression of lung tissue that faciliates transmission of sound

4

vesicular breath sounds

- high pitched, breezy sounds normally heard over the distal airways in healthy lung tissue
- inspiratory phase is longer than expiratory phase and there is no pause between them

5

adventitious breath sounds

- abnormal breath sounds heard with inspiration and/or expiration that can be continuous of discontinuous

6

crackle (formerly rales)

- abnormal, discontinuous high pitched popping sound heard more often during inspiration
- may be associated with restrictive or obstructive respiratory disorders
- often heard in teh bases of lungs with interstitial lung disease, atelectasis pneumonia, bronchiectasis and pulmonary edema
- pulmonary edema may produce fine crackles as air bubbles through fluid in the distal small airways

7

crackles in later half of inspiration

- typically represent atelectasis, fibrosis pulmonary edema or pleural effusion.

8

crackles due to movement of secretion

- usually low-pitched and can be heard during inspiration and/or expiration like the sounds of hair being rubbed togetehr between the thumb and forefinger

9

pleural friction rub

- dry crackling sound heard during both inspiration and expiration
-occurs when inflamed visceral and parietal pleurae rub together
-heard over the spot where the patient feels pleuritic pain

10

Rhonchi

- continuous low-pitched sounds described as having a "snoring" or "gurgling" quality that may be heard during both inspiration and expiration
-caused by air passing through an airway which is obstructed by inflammatory secretions or liquid, bronchial spasm or neoplpasms in teh smaller or larger airways

11

stridor

- continuous high-pitched wheeze heard with inspiration or expiration
-indicated upper airway obstruction

12

wheeze

- continuous "musical" or whistling sound composed of a variety of pitches
-heard during both inspiration and/or expiration, but variable from minute to minute and area to area
- arise from turbulent airflow and teh vibrations of the walls of small airways due to narrowing by bronchospasm, edema, collapse, secretions, neoplasm or foreign body

13

bronchial breath sounds

- abnormal breath sounds when heard in locations where vesicular sounds are normally present
-pneumonia may produce these sounds

14

decreased or diminished sounds

- a less audible sound may indicate severe congestion, emphysema or hypoventilation

15

absent breath sounds

- absent lung sounds may indicate pneumothora or lung collapse

16

bronchophony

- increased vocal resonance with greater clarity and loudness of spoken words

17

egophony

a form of bronchophony in which the spoken long "E" sound changes to a long nasal-sounding "A"

18

whispered pectoriloquy

recognition of whispered words "1,2,3"

19

anatomic dead space volume (VD)

- the volume of air that occupies the non-respirtaory conducting airways

20

expiratory reserve volume ERV

- the maximal volume of air that can be exhaled after a normal tidal exhalation
- ERV is approx 15% of total lung volume

21

forced expiratory volume FEV

- the maximal volume of air exhaled in a pecific period of time: usually the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd second of a forced vital capacity maneuver

22

Forced vital capacity FVC

the volume of air expired during a forced maximal expiration after a forced maximal inspiration

23

functional residual capacity FRC

- the volume of air in the lungs after normal exhalation
- FRC = ERV +RV
- FRC is approc 40% of total lung volume

24

inspiratory capacity IC

- the maximal volume of air that can be inspired after a normal tidal exhalation
IC= TV +IRV
- IC is approx 60% of total lung volume

25

inspiratory reserve volume IRV

- the maximal volume of air that can be inspired after normal tidal volume inspiration
-IRV is approx 50% of total lung volume

26

minute volume ventilation VE

the volume of air expired in one minute
-VE =TV x respiratory rate

27

Peak expiratory flow PEF

the max flow of air during teh beginning of a forced expiratory maneuver

28

residual volume RV

- teh volume of a gas remaining in the lungs at the end of a maximal expiration
-RV is approc 25% of Total lung volume

29

TLC

- total volume of air in the lungs after a maximal inspiration; teh sum of all lung volumes
TLC = RV +VC or TLC = FRC +IC

30

vital capacity VC

- teh volume change that occurs between maximal inspiration and maximal expiration
-VC = TV +IRV + ERV
- VC is approx 75% of total lung volume