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Flashcards in Lymphatics Lecture Deck (46)
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lymphatic system is known as...

-second circulatory system of the body and the great integrator for all body fluids


what is the lymphatic system a conduit to?

-immune system
-it is a passive system


what can alter the lymphatic system?

-extrinsic forces
-examples: OMT, exercise, nutrition, sleep, normal day to day movement


what are the roles of the lymphatic system?

-transports fat from digestive system to blood
-facilitates immune function
-vital role in overall circulatory system
-assists the body in removing intestinal fluids and plasma proteins


development of lymphatic system

-begins development at 5th week gestation and significantly present by 20 weeks gestation
-immature at birth
-matures and undergoes change until puberty, when stable adult levels of lymphoid tissue remain
-lymphatics decline in fcn in geriatric population


components of lymphatic system

-organized lymph tissue
-lymph channels/collecting ducts
-lymph fluid


where is the spleen located and what are its functions?

-beneath ribs 9, 10, 11 on left between heme-diaphragm and peritoneal cavity
-movement of diaphragm is important for homeostatic movement of splenic fluids
-destroys damaged RBCs
-synthesizes Igs
-clearance site for Ags, micro-organisms, poorly organized bacteria


what is the function of the liver?

-forms half of body's lymph
-"gate keeper" of shared hepato-biliary-pancreatic venous and lymphatic region
-clear bacteria


where is the thymus and what is its function?

-superior mediastinum, anterior to great vessels, extends to neck
-large in infant
---after puberty--involutes
---adult--replaced by fatty tissue
-provide cells involved in maturation of immune system
-processing site for T-lymphocytes
-little or no fcn in adult


what are the 3 types of tonsils and the functions?

-palatine--lateral pharynx
-lingual--posterior 1/3 of tongue
-pharyngeal--adenoids at nasopharyngeal border
-provide cells to influence and build immunity early in life
-nonessential to adult immune fcn


where is the appendix and what is its fcn?

-medial surface of cecum
-presume it offers support to immune system


what is visceral lymphoid tissue used for in the respiratory system?

-aids filtration of toxins from lungs


what is visceral lymphoid tissue used for in the GI system?

-peyer's patches--distal ilium
-lacteals--lymphatic capillaries in each villi in small bowel
-fats enter circulation via GI system


where are lymph nodes and what is the purpose?

-dispersed along course of lymph vessels
-for filtration of lymph


what are the 2 types of lymph nodes?

1. superficial--follows subcutaneously with superficial veins
2. deep--beneath fascia and muscles, follows deep veins


where do superficial lymph nodes receive lymph and drain into?

-receive from skin/deep tissue of upper and lower extremities/head and neck
-drain into 3 main groups of nodes:
1. cervical
2. axillary
3. inguinal


what do lymph channels not perfuse?

-CNS (some research says there are lymph vessels now!)
-epidermis (and hair/nails_
-endomysium of muscles and cartilage
-bone marrow
-parts of peripheral nerves


what is the structure of the lymph system?

-unidirectional fluid flow in channels
-flow controlled by one way valves
-channels/nodes surround major organs and vessels
-unite with thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct


where is Virchow's node and what is it associated with?

-left supraclavicular region
-associated with intra-abdominal or thoracic carcinoma/cancer


right and left lymph drainage of the body

-right--right side of head, right arm, right torso
-left--left side of head, left arm, left torso, left/right legs


where is the thoracic duct?

-lies against vertebral column between aorta and azygous vein
-at level of T4 moves left of midline and connects to junction of left subclavian and left brachiocephalic veins


what does the thoracic duct drain?

-left side of head and neck
-left arm
-left side of thorax
-left/right side of lower body
-viscera of thoracic


what is the origin of the thoracic duct?

-cisterna chyli
-anterior to L1-2 and posterior to right crura of diaphragm


what does the right lymphatic duct drain and connect?

-right head and neck
-right arm
-right chest

-venous system at jugular subclavian junction


what is lymph fluid and what are the components of lymph fluid?

-substance tha leaks out of arterial capillaries into the interstitial and into single cell lymphatic vessels
--clotting factors
--large particles: bacteria and viruses


what are the functions of the lymphatic system?

-fluid balance
-purification and cleansing


explain fluid balance of the lymphatic system

-50% of plasma proteins re-enter system via lymph
-can absorb some excess fluid from plea, peritoneum, pericardium, and joints
-large proteins can enter lymphatic system
-aids in homeostasis


explain purification and cleansing of the lymphatic system

-lymph fluid bathes all organs
-cleanses extracellular spaces of particulate matter, exudate, and bacteria
-fluid is delivered to the node


explain defense and the lymphatic system

-brings toxins, bacteria, viruses into contact with lymphatic system--acquired immunity
-free flowing of lymph necessary for good immune fcn


explain nutrition and lymphatic system

-lymph returns proteins back to vascular system
-proteins bind to nutrients
-fats absorbed via lymph system