Flashcards in M Deck (26)
How resurrection of Jesus influences
gives Christians faith that they will be raised from the dead, by
proving that it is possible, helps them overcome fear of death,
encourages some to lay down their life for their faith
creates faith that good can triumph over evil, so helps Christians
face persecution and suffering
proves that Jesus was God’s son, so gives authority to his teaching
and example and gives them stronger reason to follow his teachin
Explain two Christian teachings about judgement
judgement will happen after death: everyone will be raised from the
dead and will face God/Jesus for judgement; this may happen at
the end of time or Second Coming. Apostles’ Creed
they will be judged on the basis of what they have said and done:
how they have used their ‘talents’, how they have helped others;
Matthew 25 parables of the Talents and the Sheep and the Goats
after judgement they will be sent to heaven, hell or purgatory;
explanation of concepts of heaven/hell/purgatory. Matthew 25:46, John 5:29
‘If God were loving, there would be no suffering in the world.’
Support even if God is not the cause of suffering, he should be able to stop
it; since he doesn’t, he must not be l
Against if God constantly intervened to prevent suffering, it would remove one of his greatest gifts to humans, free will
suffering enables spiritual growth and deepens trust in God. The existence of suffering inspires people to reflect the love and compassion of God in their response to those who are suffering
some Christians believe that God is all-loving but not omnipotent, and so although he would wish to remove suffering, he cannot
humans are limited and so cannot understand God’s purposes for
his world; as the book of Job states, they are called to trust.
Give two reasons why the disciples believed Jesus was alive after his resurrection.
They saw him/he spoke to them/the tomb was empty/he ate with them/ it was the fulfilment of prophecy etc.
Explain two ways in which the belief that God is just influences Christians today.
it influences them to try and be fair towards others/this is because
they believe God loves them and is fair to them too/they have experienced the justice of God so they want others to experience it, etc
• it influences them to try to bring about justice in the world/this is because God cares about justice/they will try to end injustice, etc
• they believe that God is pleased with people who are just and fair like him/so they will try to develop this quality/God sets them an example to follow, etc.
Explain two Christian teachings about the means of salvation.
the law of God shows Christians how to live/the Ten
Commandments teach God's way, how to avoid sin and how to live a good life/if people could keep God’s law they would get the most out of life. Exodus 20 etc
• the grace of God makes it possible for Christians to be forgiven and make a new start/God sent Jesus as a Saviour, to die for the sins of everyone/to offer them the chance to turn away from their sins and follow him. Romans 10: 9–11, Ephesians 2:5, I Timothy 1: 15–16, etc
• the Spirit of God gives Christians the power to keep his law/the Holy Spirit lives in Christians and makes them gradually more like Jesus/in this way Christians become the sons and daughters of God/they are part of his family. Galatians 4: 6–7, Romans 8: 3–4, etc.
‘The Bible tells Christians all they need to know about God's creation
Support Genesis 1 shows how God is the Creator and that he created light
simply by his word/this is all they need to know/God creates just by
speaking/there was no effort involved
• the Bible tells people why the world was created/science does not
answer ultimate questions/this helps people understand their purpose
• other views about how the world was created have not been
proved/only the Bible has authority because it is God's word/so this is all Christians need to know, etc.
the stories of creation in the Bible are more like poetry and myth/ they do not give a scientific account of how everything began/for this Christians need to consider scientific research
• the Big Bang Theory and the theory of evolution have lots of support from scientists and some of them are Christians/these views help Christians to understand how God created everything/ the Bible does not tell Christians this so they need more than the Bible
• the Bible was written a long time ago/it does not contain up-to-date knowledge about the universe and biology/if Christians depend completely on the Bible they will not understand God's creation very well, etc.
Give two ways in which Shi’a Muslims celebrate the festival of Ashura
By re-enacting the events that led up to the death of Husayn/mourning/sermons about Husayn and his significance/public recitations of the stories or poems on the same theme/customary for mosques to provide free meals for peopl
Explain two contrasting understandings of Jihad.
greater Jihad – the struggle with weaknesses of character and faith.
This includes following Shariah law, carrying out the pillars and practising virtues such as generosity and honesty. Muhammad is said to have called this the greater Jihad ‘the effort against oneself’ (hadith)
• lesser Jihad – The duty to fight when commanded by a legitimate ruler, under the conditions, and in ways, permitted by Qur’an and Shariah. Qur’an 2:190: it must be a defensive war, Muslims should not be the aggressor.
Explain two ways in which the Ka’aba is important in the Muslim Hajj
Muslims circle 7 times around the Ka’aba – it represents the single
point around which Muslim life focuses, the oneness of God. Qur’an
• the Ka’aba is the direction of prayer. In daily prayers, Muslims make
a spiritual journey to it, during pilgrimage many will make a once in a lifetime journey to that point so that the whole of their life is focused on God. Qur’an 3:96–7
• pilgrims unite at the Ka’aba, although they come from all over the world and from different sects in Islam, so it unites the Ummah. Qur’an 5:97.
‘The best way for Muslims to understand God is to practise Sala
Support Salah is a direct contact between the individual and God, so their understanding of God is personal to them and not based on other people’s ideas which could be wrong
• the believer focuses on the feeling of being in God’s presence, t is sometimes described as a feeling of ‘awe and wonder’ (taqwah)
at the greatness of God
• God is beyond description because there is nothing God can be
compared to/so God cannot be understood by reading about him or hearing other people talk about him.
not everyone can have this kind of prayer experience so they do not feel the presence of God through prayer
• the Qur’an as the inspired word of God is his presentation of himself to human beings, so an understanding of God can come from reading what he says about himself, God will help those who read the Qur’an to feel his presence so they can understand him
• a study of creation can also bring about an understanding of God because creation is a sign from God.
Give two rituals that Muslims perform during Salah.
Bowing down/prostration/recite the Qur’an/crying out ‘God is great’ etc.
Explain two contrasting understandings of Salah.
they must pray the 5 daily prayers at 5 different times/they only
combine prayers during hajj or whilst travelling, etc
they prostrate by putting their heads directly on to a prayer mat/or
they may use any clean place, etc.
they can pray at three different times during the day/they combine
the afternoon and evening prayers, etc
they must pray on natural material that cannot be worn or
eaten/many use a special clay tablet to prostrate on, etc.
Explain two ways in which the celebration of the festival of Id-ul-Adha is important to Muslims.
they will attend the Mosque/the day starts with special prayers/
Muslims are reminded of Allah’s blessings/‘Who can be better in religion than one who submits his whole self to God, does good and follows the way of Abraham, the true in Faith? For God did take Abraham for a friend’ Quran 4:125, etc
a sacrifice is made/this is done to remember Abraham’s sacrifice/ the meat is distributed to family, friends and the poor/‘O my son, I have seen in a dream that I should sacrifice you’ (Qur’an 37:100)
they will meet with friends and family/gifts are exchanged/and special food prepared to celebrate/this will include the distributing of meat to friends and family/Muslims see it as a day of sharing and caring, etc.
Completing the hajj is the most important duty for a Muslim
Arguments in support
it purifies a person of all sins/this is important as Muslims will be judged by Allah on their deeds/the hadith say that a person returns like a new born child/this is also shown through the shaving of the hair after the hajj it is one of the pillars/clearly this is an important duty as it is commanded in the Qur’an/‘Proclaim that the people shall observe Hajj pilgrimage.’ 22:27
it builds the bond of brotherhood/people from different backgrounds and ethnicities gather and this helps to build the concept of Ummah which is an important duty for all Muslims. etc.
Arguments in support of other views
there are other pillars that are clearly more important/the Shahadah is the cornerstone of Islam/without this all other worship is rendered invalid
hajj is only compulsory for those that can afford to perform it/are physically able
other duties like looking after the poor/being dutiful to parents/ praying salah are clearly more important/as there are several hadith that mention these specifically etc.
‘Divorce is never right
Arguments in support
• religious couples have made vows to be faithful/to stay together no
matter what the circumstances/eg ‘till death do us part’/bring up
children together/it is wrong to break those vows
• children are badly affected by divorce/parents have a duty children
• this argument may be presented from a religious or utilitarian
• marriage is a contract/sacrament/sacred bond. Divorce goes
against religious teaching.
Arguments in support of other views
• some religious believers, as well as many atheists and humanists, would argue that in cases of abuse, the harm to children is greater than the harm done by separation eg continual fighting disrupts the peace of family life, drug addiction, alcohol problems and infidelity can be detrimental to family life. Many atheists and humanists would argue for utilitarian principles to operate/ie whatever causes the greatest happiness and least pain for human beings
• humans make mistakes, marriages fail, and for some religious believers, it is more compassionate to allow divorce when people have irreconcilable differences and the most compassionate act is the right act.
• atheists and humanists do not believe that marriage vows are made before God, so they would generally support a couple’s right to divorce, decide for themselves about the future of their relationship. Divorce is legal so people are allowed to divorce.
Teaching on divorce in Mark 10:2-12; ‘Man must not separate what God has joined together’ (Matthew 19:6) Ideal: marriage is for life, a view supported by Biblical teaching. Churches must uphold sanctity of marriage. Roman Catholics believe marriage cannot be dissolved/revoked. Civil divorce not recognised - couple not free to remarry.
Eastern Orthodox church has the authority to end marriages: church itself grants divorce and remarries, but usually not for the third time. Protestant churches accept civil divorce as end to marriage and allow remarriage in church.
Divorce is allowed but is considered ‘hateful to Allah’ (Hadith). The right procedures must be followed: Before divorce, couples must try to resolve their differences. They must bring in two friends or relatives to help settle matters, one from his family and the other from hers. Couples must wait 3 months (iddah) staying in the same home but sleeping separately – to see if the wife is pregnant and to allow reconciliation if possible (Qur’an 4:35). A wife can divorce her husband but must repay the dowry, unless the cause for divorce is his fault, and she will not be supported by him. A man still has responsibility for the support of his children in all circumstances.
Explain two contrasting beliefs in contemporary British society about the death penalty for murder.
Many denominations oppose the death penalty/Jesus replaced the concept of ‘an eye for an eye’ with ‘turn the other cheek’ (Matthew 5:38–39)/when asked for his opinion on a particular case, Jesus said, ‘If anyone of you is without sin, let him be the first to throw a stone’ (John 8:7)/‘do not be overcome by evil; but overcome evil with good’ (Romans 12:21)/‘I am passionately opposed to the death penalty for anyone...I think, myself, that it is an obscenity’ Desmond Tutu)/the Catechism of the Catholic Church permits the death penalty only if an absolute necessity, but thinks that other options for punishment make such cases ‘very rare, if not practically non-existent’/some Christians think that ‘an eye for an eye’ should apply to murder.
Several Qur’anic texts support the use of the death penalty/essential for justice to be done/‘Take not life, which Allah hath made sacred, except by way of justice and law: thus doth He command you, that ye may learn wisdom.’ (Qur’an 6:151)/‘If any one slew a person – unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land – it would be as if he slew the whole people’ (Qur’an 5:33)/according to the Qur’an, the victim’s family can insist on the death penalty or in an act of mercy, accept monetary compensation and some UK Muslims would see this as an argument against the death penalty/‘O ye who believe! the law of equality is prescribed to you in cases of murder... But if any remission is made by the brother of the slain, then grant any reasonable demand, and compensate him with handsome gratitude, this is a concession and a Mercy from your Lord.’ (Qur’an 2:178)/‘If somebody kills my brother, then I should not go about killing him, but demand compensation – and even in that matter I shouldn’t exceed bounds, but demand only what is just and according to status and circumstances’ (Kashif Shahzada).
Explain two religious beliefs about breaking the law in order to get a bad law changed.
Romans 13:1–7 requires Christians to obey the laws of the land because God has given them the authority to do so/however Acts 5:27– 27 shows that when a government law is against the law of God, it may (and possibly should) be broken/following the teaching of Jesus in Mark 12:15, Christians accept their duty of obedience both to the state and to God/but God is the priority/in the 20th century, some Christians refused to pay a tax that they saw as morally wrong and went to prison as a result/most Christians would not accept violent protest because it shows a lack of love and respect for others/Martin Luther King and his supporters broke the law non-violently.
The name Islam means ‘peace’/Muslims are committed to obedience to the law unless it promotes injustice, threatens Islam etc/Muslims have a duty to protest against repressive and immoral laws or governments/it may be part of the Greater Jihad to do so/‘The prophet was asked what kind of jihad is better. He replied, “A word of truth in front of an oppressive ruler.” (Sunnah)/violence in protest is only justified if in self- defence/though some Muslims would regard it as acceptable as a last resort, if everything else had failed to remove the injustice or the threat to the faith.
Corporal punishment can never be justified.’
rguments in support
• it destroys the innate dignity of human beings that is given to them
• many atheists and humanists, as well as religious believers, would
claim that it creates a society in which violence is not only accepted but actually encouraged
• it destroys one of the basic human rights of integrity of the body
• it encourages resentment and a desire for revenge against society
on the part of the offender
• its effects on the person carrying out the punishment are negative/it
desensitises the person and encourages a lack of compassion
• utilitarians (eg Mill) who focus on the individual as well as society
and on the quality of the pleasure could never justify it.
Arguments in support of other views
• corporal punishment is a cheap way of punishing effectively
• it is quickly administered/allows the convicted person to resume a
normal life speedily
• depending on the form of the punishment, it could have no long-
term negative effects/only the criminal suffers, not the rest of
society which has to pay heavy taxes to maintain prisons etc • the principle of utility might be used to argue that if harsh
punishment of one person deterred countless others and so protected society from future harm, it could be justified.
Most are opposed to the Old Testament teaching of ‘spare the rod and spoil the child’ (Proverbs 13:24)/does not reflect Christian love/‘those who live by the sword die by the sword’ (Matthew 26:52) points to the negative effects of violence/rejection by many of retribution as a valid aim of punishment/a minority of fundamentalist Christians might see corporal punishment as justified by Old Testament tea
Permitted in Shari’ah law/‘as to the thief, male or female, cut off his or her hands: a punishment by way of example from Allah’ (Surah 5:38)/ flogging in Islamic countries for adultery and drinking or possessing alcohol/intended as a deterrent/punishment in earthly life instead of in afterlife, so can be seen as merciful/some Muslims opposed to it as culturally outdated/too harsh.
Explain two contrasting religious beliefs about same-sex parents.
Some believe same-sex parents is unnatural and unhealthy as heterosexuality is God’s plan for raising children/the Bible says that it is wrong for a man to sleep with a man ( Leviticus 18:22/1 Corinthians 6:9–10) so fundamentalists oppose same-sex parenting/others do not oppose same-sex parenting for those who live in a faithful and committed relationship, etc.
Muslims do not approve of same-sex parents as they believe that homosexual relationships and same-sex marriage is morally wrong/Qur’an 7:80–81/same-sex parents would not be able to set a good example to their children as there would not be both male and female role models/same-sex relationships are seen in some Muslim countries as a punishable offence/the Qur’an describes how Allah destroyed a city for ignoring Lut’s denunciation of their behaviour/in contrast some Muslim organisations support Muslims who are in a loving homosexual relationship, etc.
Explain two religious beliefs about sexual relationships outside of marriage (adulter
Adultery breaks marriage vows made before God at the wedding/threatens the whole purpose of marriage/threatens security of any children/against the commandment ‘Do not commit adultery.’ (Exodus 20:14)/against Jesus’ teaching: ‘You have heard that it was said, ‘Do not commit adultery.’ But I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart.’ (Matthew 5:27–8), etc.
Adultery a serious sin with severe punishment in some Muslim countries/adultery betrays promises made in marriage/Qur’an teaches ‘And do not go anywhere near adultery: it is an outrage, and an evil path.’ (Qur’an 17:32)/A Hadith teaches ‘Let no man be in privacy with a woman who is not lawful to him, or Satan will be a third’,
Men and women should not have equal right
All people have been created as equals in the image of God/love one’s neighbour means that discrimination is wrong/Jesus treated women with respect/welcomed them as disciples/showed in the story of Mary and Martha (Luke 10:38–42) that they were capable of things other than domestic tasks/Paul taught there is neither male nor female, all are one in Christ (Galatians 3:28)/but some traditional Christians see men as head of the family/women’s role is to care for home and children/some take Genesis 3:16 literally, ie your husband will rule over you/most now see marriage as an equal partnership to which both men and women contribute, etc.
Allah created all people equal/Qur’an teaches that men and women were created from a single soul/have the same spiritual human nature (Qur’an 49:13)/Muhammad united ummah around principle of equality/men and women have same religious and moral responsibilities/Muhammad’s teaching that anyone, man or woman, who does a good deed for Allah’s sake will be rewarded (Qur’an 16:97)/Islamic law recognises women’s property rights/right to keep maiden name/have her own money/be financially supported within marriage/women’s role highly valued as mother and homemaker to bring up children within Islam/nowadays many couples share these duties/however in some Muslim countries women’s rights to freedom are restricted due to cultural rather than religious reasons/eg not being able to vote/drive/be educated as well as men/wear the veil, etc.
Give two religious beliefs about forgiveness.
For theists, God is the ultimate source of forgiveness/forgiveness is an important step in reconciliation/forgiveness does not replace punishment/forgiveness brings inner peace/shows compassion/God will forgive those who ask in faith/God requires humans to forgive whatever offence has been committed, etc.
Explain two similar religious beliefs about people who break the law.
Law breakers should be forgiven and given a second chance but they need to be punished as well during which time they are helped to reform/‘A man reaps what he sows’ (Galatians)/Christians should work with people to discourage reoffending/although poverty cannot be used as an excuse for breaking the law reducing poverty and bad social conditions may prevent law breaking/law breakers should be encouraged and helped to repent leading to forgiveness/reparation can help a person to repent, etc
Shari’ah law is based on religious sources including the Qur’an so breaking the law is serious/offenders should be treated harshly as a deterrent to themselves and to others/hope that offenders will repent, reform and seek forgiveness/in some instances, the needs of the victim is considered more than the needs of the offender/true judgement will come from Allah, etc.
Explain two religious beliefs about the death penalty.
Removes possibility of repentance/only God can take life that he created/‘whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed’ (Genesis)/death penalty is a deterrent that helps to prevent other serious crime/some Christian countries use death penalty (eg some states in USA), etc.
Shari’ah law permits the use of the death penalty as deterrence