m362glossary Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Deliberately stop something that has started.


Aborted (transaction state)

The state a transaction is in after it has been rolled back to undo any partially completed actions of the transaction.


access controller

A component used by the security manager to check permissions belonging to classes.


ACID properties

The desirable properties of a transaction: atomicity, consistency, isolation and durability.


acquire phase

The phase in two-phase locking in which the locks are gradually acquired, and in which no locks can be released.


action (in a policy file)

In Java, the part of an entry in a policy file that describes the kinds of action that may be performed with respect to some target.


action-oriented model

A software model in which the actions carried out by processors are central, as opposed to an object-oriented model where objects are central, or a data- oriented model where data is central.


activation frames

A data structure storing information about a method call in Java that allows the method to resume after being placed on a stack.


Active (transaction state)

The state a transaction is in as soon as it has started, and in which it remains while executing.



Identifying a particular computer on the internet using either a symbolic address or a numeric address.


ad-hoc network

A network with dynamic routing and without dedicated nodes like routers and hubs, thereby allowing nodes to easily join and leave the network.


after image

In logging, the name given to the value of a variable after an update is made.



A Java language construct that provides additional information about the class, method, variable, etc. that is being annotated. The information can be used at compile time or at runtime, typically to generate code, enforce additional constraints, or provide extra documentation. Each annotation has zero or more elements, each being a name- value pair.



A block of compiled Java (in bytecode form) that can be downloaded along with a web page and that runs within suitable browsers.


application (Java)

A Java program that can run independently of a browser.


application client

A Java EE client implemented as a Java application, running on the client computer either in its own JVM or in an application client container.


application client container

A software environment for application clients that takes care of many of the routine requirements of communication, security and so on. In particular, it facilitates access from an application client to remote EJB session beans running on the server.


application domain

A domain containing less privileged (non-system domain) classes in a protection domain.


application framework

A set of classes, libraries and other software that provides a structure to help construct systems for standard types of application - for example, Apache Struts or JavaServer Faces are web application frameworks.


application gateway

A kind of firewall providing a proxy service.


application object (CORBA)

A user-defined object in a CORBA application.


application portability

The ability to adapt an application to a different platform. The easier the adaptation is the more portable the application is said to be.


application programming interface (API)

An interface provided by a computer system or program library. Services specified in a computer system/library can be made available to and called on by computer programs. The software that provides the functionality described by an API is said to be an implementation of the API.


application server

A server dedicated to running a number of applications.


application service provider (ASP)

An organisation offering access to application software run on centralised servers and accessed over the internet using a browser or specialised client software.


application software

Software designed to carry out a function for the user, e.g. a payroll application or a word processing program (as opposed to systems software like the operating system or middleware).


application-managed entity manager

An entity manager that has to be explicitly created and closed by the application.


asymmetric cryptography

A code in which the encoding key is different from the decoding key, but is related to it in a non-trivial way (an example of this is public key cryptography).


asymmetric replication

See master-slave ownership.


asynchronous message passing

A form of communication in which the sending and receiving processes do not have to be at their synchronisation points at the same time. This form of message passing requires a buffer in order to store messages in the case of the receiving process not being ready to receive the message.