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Flashcards in Machining Deck (10):

What is machining?

General term to describe material removal process

-Cutting: involves single point or multi-point cutting tools such as turning, drilling, milling, sawing, etc..
- Abrasive process: Grinding, honing, lapping etc...
- Advanced processes: non-traditional machining that use electrical, chemical, thermal and hydrodynamic sources of energy to remove material


Advantages of Machining

- Closer dimensional accuracy than deformation or casting
- Can produce external or internal geometry features like sharp corners
- Parts that were heat treated may require additional finishing operations to account for distortion
- If number parts are low it may be less expensive to machine rather than cast or deform


Disadvantages of Machining

- Material Waste and more energy and labor needed than other processes
- Removing volume takes more time
- Removing material can alter surface integrity and effect fatigue life


Basic method is a cutting tool moving along workpiece at certain speed.

What are independent variables of this?

- Type of cutting tool and its properties
- Shape of the tool
- Workpiece material
- Temperature it is machined at
- Speed, feed, depth of cut
- Tool holder and work holder devices


Basic method is a cutting tool moving along workpiece at certain speed.

What are dependent variables of this?

- Type of chip produced
- Force required in the cutting process
- Temperature rise in the workpiece
- Wear and failure of the tool
- Surface finish and integrity of workpiece


End Milling

- Milling involves various shapes and contours of the material and can be straight or tilted to produce tapered surfaces giving it 3 degrees of freedom.
- Commercial tolerances range between 0.13 - 0.25mm.
- Milling operates at a low to medium production rate or in the range of 1-100 parts per hour.



- Turning has different tolerances based on the application of it. Fine turning will produce a tolerance between 0.05 – 0.13mm while rough turning will produce 0.13mm.
- This machining process are performed on all types of materials and operated on only a single point cutting tool therefore only having one degree of freedom. -
- Turning operates at a very low to medium production rate ranging between 1-100 parts per hour.



- Drilling has one degree of freedom
- It will produce commercial tolerances of 0.025mm
- Operates at a low to medium production rate producing around 10 – 100 parts per hour.



- Sawing has two degrees of freedom but is not suitable for hard materials unless coated with diamond or something equally hard.
- It produces commercial tolerances of 0.8mm
- Operates at a very low to low production rate.


Machine Turning Center

Is a computer controlled machine tool capable of performing a variety of machining operations on different surfaces, locations, and orientations on a workpiece.