Macromolecules, Polymer & Carbohydrate Flashcards Preview

Biology - 2.2 Biological Molecules > Macromolecules, Polymer & Carbohydrate > Flashcards

Flashcards in Macromolecules, Polymer & Carbohydrate Deck (36)
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1
Q

Definition of Macromolecules

A

Macromolecules are complex molecules with a relatively large molecular mass - e.g. proteins, some carbohydrates and lipids.

2
Q

Definition of Monomer

A

Monomer is a small molecule which binds to many other identical molecules to form a polymer - e.g. monosaccharides & amino acids

3
Q

Definition of polymer

A

polymer is a large molecule made from many smaller molecules called monomers - e.g. protein & some carbohydrate

4
Q

Definition of condensation reaction

A

its a reaction that occurs when two molecules are joined together with the removal of water

5
Q

Definition of hydrolysis reaction

A

its a reaction that occurs when a molecule is split into two smaller molecules with the addition of water

6
Q

Carbohydrates molecules, monomer with example and polymer with example

A

( C, H, O) - monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) & polysaccharide (e.g. starch)

7
Q

Proteins molecules, monomer and polymer

A

( C, H, O, N, S) - amino acids & Polypeptides and Proteins

8
Q

Nucleic Acid molecules, monomer and polymer

A

(C, H, O, N, P) - Nucleotides & DNA and RNA

9
Q

Definition of Carbohydrates

A

A group of molecules containing C, H and O

10
Q

For every carbohydrates there are…

A

… usually two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.

11
Q

What is glucose and what shape does it have?

A

its a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms. This means it’s a hexose monosaccharide.

12
Q

A- glucose strucutre

A
One O atom
C1 has H at the top and OH at the bottom
C2 has OH at the bottom
C3 has H at the bottom
C4 has H at the top and OH at the bottom
C5 has CH2OH at the top
13
Q

B- glucose strucutre

A
One O atom
C1 has OH at the top and H at the bottom
C2 has OH at the bottom
C3 has H at the bottom
C4 has H at the top and OH at the bottom
C5 has CH2OH at the top
14
Q

A- glucose role

A

> An energy source

> Component of starch and glycogen, which act as energy stores

15
Q

B- glucose role

A

> An energy source

> component of cellulose, which provides structural support in plant cell wall.

16
Q

what does A- glucose and B- glucose structure allow them to do & and what do the bonds contain

A

> There structure makes it soluble, so it can be easily transported.
its chemical bonds contain lots of energy.

17
Q

What is ribose and what shape does it have?

A

its a monosaccharide with five (C5H10O5) carbon atoms. This means its a pentose monosaccharide.

18
Q

Structure of ribose

A

One O atom
C1 has OH at the top and H at the bottom
C2 and C3 have H at the top and OH at the bottom
C4 has H at the bottom and CH2OH at the top

19
Q

Role of Ribose

A

its the sugar component of RNA nucleotides

20
Q

What are monosaccharides joined together by?

A

Glycosidic bonds

21
Q

How is a disaccharides formed?

A

they are formed when two monosaccharides are joined together

22
Q

How is polysaccharide formed?

A

its formed when more than two monosaccharide join together

23
Q

polysaccharide formation

A

during synthesis, a hydrogen atom on one monosaccharide bonds to a hydroxyl (OH) group on the other, releasing a water molecule - condensation reaction

24
Q

How is Maltose formed?

A

a - glucose + a - glucose

25
Q

How is Sucrose formed?

A

a - glucose + fructose

26
Q

How is Lactose formed?

A

b - galactose + a - glucose

27
Q

How is Cellobiose formed?

A

b - glucose + b - glucose

28
Q

What is starch

A

its a carbohydrate and the main energy storage materials in plans

29
Q

where do cells get energy from?

A

From glucose

30
Q

where do plants get energy from?

A

Plants store excess glucose as starch and when a plant need more glucose for energy it break down starch to to release glucose

31
Q

what makes starch good for storage?

A

its insoluble in water so it doest cause water to enter cells by osmosis which would make them swell

32
Q

What is starch a mixture of?

A

of two polysaccharides of alpha glucose - amylose and amylopectin

33
Q

what is amylose?

A

its a long, unbranched chain of a-glucose

34
Q

What makes amylose compact? and advantage of it?

A

the angles of the glycosidic bonds give it a coiled structure, almost like a cylinder- this makes it compact which is really good for storage because you can fit more in to a small space.

35
Q

what is amylopectin?

A

its a long, branched chain of a-glucose

36
Q

advantages of it structure of amylopectin

A

its side branches allow the enzymes that break down the molecules to get at the glycosidic bonds easily. this means that the glucose can be released quickly.