Macronutrients Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Macronutrients Deck (12):

Omega 3 Fatty Acids

Used in: atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, immune, mental health, diabetes, etc.

Deficiency: dermatology, CVD

Food sources: FISH

Tox: Vit A high dose cod liver oil


  • CVD: minimum of 1g of combined EPA and DHA per day
  • Mental health: more EPA than DHA at 3:1 ratio or more, 2-3g
  • Derm: also high EPA, and high dose (4-6g) per day
  • DHA: particularly useful for pediatrics, pregnant women, post TBI. Anything with brain development.



Omega 6 Fatty Acids

GLA is most common therapeutic one

Used in: allergies, RA, asthma, eczema (sp. for itching)

Food: evening primrose, borage, veggies

Not as useful as omega-3 (when in doubt pick omega-3)


Omega 9 Fatty Acids

Oleic acid

Used: atherosclerosis, decreases BP/cholesterol

Food: olive oil, peanuts, avocado, almonds


Saturated Fatty Acids

Required 20g daily

Toxicity: Increased CVD, colon cancer

Food: Animal products


Trans-fatty Acids

Bad bad bad

Causes: atherosclerosis and other baddies

Food: hydrogenated oils, processed foods


Simple Carbs

Lower requirement if getting enough complex carbs

Toxicity: diabetes, PMS, poor immune, dental problems

Used (not really): honey on wounds, dextrose for IV fluid stabilization


Complex Carbs

300g (60-70% calories very generally)

Toxicity: obesity, CVD

Used: blood sugar reg, hypoglycemia

Food: grains, fruits, vegs


Water-Soluble Fiber

Soluble fiber absorbs water, turns it gel-like

Used: CVD, diabetes, obesity, IBS, GI issues (both diarrhea + constipation)

Food: oatmeal, nuts, beans, apples

More health functions that water-insoluble


Water-Insoluble Fiber

Insoluble fiber doesn’t absorb water, moves through body, slowing digestion and makes stool softer and easier to pass

Uses: weight loss, digestive functions, constipation

Food: seeds, fruit skins, whole-wheat bread, brown rice



“If you want to know which proteins are essential, who do you ask?”

Private Tim Hall: PVT TIM HLL

Remember – NOT proline, NOT tyrosine

"Pros don’t get Tyred"


2 types of protein deficiency?

Kwashiorkor: hypoalbumin, edema, hepatosplenomegaly


Marasmus (protein AND calorie def): diarrhea, hunger, muscle/fat wasting

50g or 0.8g/kg/d


Protein Requirements

Typically: 50g or 0.8g/kg/d

Lower: gout, kidney dz, renal failure, osteoporosis, OA

Higher: pregnancy, pre-clampsia, athletes