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Flashcards in Main Drugs Used Deck (70)
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1

Adrenaline
indications

Croup (with stridor at rest)
Severe or life threatening bronchospasm (speaking in single words/ALOC/haemodynamic compromise)
Cardiac arrest
Anaphylaxis or severe allergic reaction
Bradycardia with poor perfusion (unresponsive to atropine or TCP)
Shock unresponsive to adequate fluid resus

2

Adrenaline
contraindications

Nil

3

Adrenaline
precautions

Current MAOI therapy
Hypertension
Hypovolaemic shock

4

Adrenaline
side effects

Tremors
Anxiety
Palpitations/Tachycardia
Hypertension
Pupil dilation

5

Adrenaline
Dosage for cardiac arrest

IV (ACP, CCP)
1mg every 3-5 minutes
No max dose

IO (CCP)
1mg every 3-5 minutes
No max dose

6

Adrenaline
Dosages for anaphylaxis or severe allergic reaction

IM (ACP1, ACP2, CCP)
300 mcg, repeat at 5 min
No max dose
NEB (ACP2, CCP) - for facial or tongue swelling
5mg single dose
IV/IO (CCP)
20-50 mcg, repeat at 1 min intervals
No max dose

7

Adrenaline
Dosages for severe to life threatening bronchospasm

IM (ACP1, ACP2, CCP)
300 mcg every 5 min
No max
IV/IO (CCP)
20-50 mcg every 1 min
No max

8

Aspirin
Indications

Suspected ACS
Acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema

9

Aspirin
Precautions

Use of other anticoagulants (e.g. Warfarin)
Hx of GI bleed or peptic ulcer
Aortic aneurysm or other condition that may require surgery
Pregnancy

10

Aspirin
Side effects

GI bleed
Epigastric discomfort/pain
Nausea/vomiting
Gastritis
NSAID induced bronchospasm

11

Aspirin
Dosages

PO (ACP1, ACP2, CCP)
300mg single dose
Max dose 450mg

12

Aspirin
Onset, duration and half-life

Onset: approx 10 min
Duration: 1 week
Half life: 3.2 hours

13

Ceftriaxone
Indications

Suspected meningococcal septicaemia (with non blanching petechia and/or purpuric rash)

14

Ceftriaxone
Containdications

KSAR or hypersensitivity
Known anaphylaxis or severe allergic reaction to penicillin based drugs

15

Ceftriaxone
Precautions

Nil

16

Ceftriaxone
Side effects

Nausea/vomiting
Pain at IM injection site

17

Ceftriaxone
Adult dosages

IM (ACP1, ACP2, CCP)
1g single dose
Syringe preparation - reconstitute in 3.6mL of water in 10mL syringe
IV (ACP2, CCP) IO (CCP)
1g single dose - Slow push over 3-5 minutes
Syringe preparation - reconstitute in 10mL of water in 10mL syringe

18

Fentanyl
Indications

Significant pain
Autonomic dysreflexia (SBP >/= 160mmHg)
Sedation for maintenance of established LMA or ETT

19

Fentanyl
Contraindications

KSAR or hypersensitivity

20

Fentanyl
Precautions

Elderly
Hypotensive
Concurrent MAOI therapy
Respiratory tract burns
Respiratory depression/failure
Known narcotic addiction

21

Fentanyl
Side effects

Pinpoint pupils
Nausea/vomiting
Bradycardia
Hypotension
Drowsiness
Respiratory depression

(Not morphine) muscular rigidity - especially respiratory muscles

22

Fentanyl
Onset, duration, half-life

Onset: (IV)

23

Fentanyl
Dosages for significant pain and autonomic dysreflexia (ACP2 +)

IM (ACP1, ACP2, CCP)
>70 years 25mcg
Repeat at up to 50mcg every 5 min
Total max dose 100mcg
70 years 25mcg
Repeat at up to 25mcg every 5 min
Total max dose 100mcg

24

Glucagon
Indications

Symptomatic hypoglycaemia

25

Glucagon
Contraindications

KSAR or hypersensitivity

26

Glucagon
Precautions and side effects

Nil

27

Glucagon
Onset, Duration and Half-life

Onset: 4-7 min
Duration: variable
Half-life: 3-6 min

28

Glucagon
Dosages

IM (ACP1, ACP2, CCP)
1mg single dose
Reconstitute with 1mL water in 3ml syringe

29

Glucose 10%
Indications

Symptomatic hypoglycaemia

30

Glucose 10%
Contraindications
Precautions
Side effects

Contras - nil
Precautions - hyperglycaemia
Side effects - nil

31

Glucose 10%
Dosages

IV (ACP2, CCP) IO (CCP)
15g (150ml)
Repeat at 100ml boluses every 5 min until BGL >4mmol

32

Glucose Gel
Indications
Contraindications
Precautions
Side effects

Indications - symptomatic hypoglycaemia
Contras - age

33

Glucose gel
Onset

Approx 10 min

34

Glucose gel
Dosages

PO (ACP1, ACP2, CCP)
15g
Repeat once at 15 min of BGL less than 4mmol/L
Total max dose 30g

35

GTN
Indications

Suspected ACS (with pain)
Acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedem
Autonomic dysreflexia (SBP >160)
Irukandji syndrome (SBP >160)

36

GTN
Contraindications

KSAR
HR >150 or

37

GTN
Precautions

Use of phosphodiestase inhibitors in last 48 hours
Cerebrovascular disease
Suspected inferior AMI
Risk of hypotension and/or syncope
Intoxication

38

GTN
Side effects

Hypotension
Reflex tachycardia
Vascular headaches
Dizziness
Syncope

39

GTN
Adult dosages (all indications)

Sublingual (ACP1, ACP2, CCP)
400mcg
Repeat at 5 min
No max

Also CCP IV infusion for suspected ACS

40

Ipratropium Bromide
Indications

Moderate or severe bronchospasm

41

Ipratropium Bromide
Contraindications

Age

42

Ipratropium Bromide
Precautions

Glaucoma

43

Ipratropium Bromide
Side Effects

Dilated pupils
Dry mouth
Palpitations

44

Ipratropium Bromide
Onset, Duration, Half-life

Onset - 1.5-3 min
Duration - 4-6 hours
Half-life - 3 hrs

45

Ipratropium Bromide
Dosages

NEB (ACP1, ACP2, CCP)
500mcg
Single dose

46

Methoxyfleurane
Indications

Significant pain

47

Methoxyfleurane
Contraindications

KSAR or hypersensitivity
Hx of malignant hyperthermia
Hx of significant renal or hepatic failure
Pt

48

Methoxyfleurane
Precautions

ALOC
Intoxication or drug affected pt

49

Methoxyfleurane
Side effects

ALOC
Cough
Renal/hepatic failure (following repeat high dose exposure)

50

Methoxyfleurane
Onset, Duration, half-life

Onset - 1-3 min

51

Methoxyfleurane
Dosages

Inhaled (ACP1, ACP2, CCP)
3ml
Repeat at 20 min

52

Midazolam
Indications

Generalised/focal seizures
Avute behavioural disturbances (SAT 2 or more)
Sedation
- maintenance of LMA or ETT
- Procedures (TCP or cardioversion)
- Adjunct to opioid analgesia
- Ketamine emergence
- To facilitate safe assessment and treatment of agitated head injured patient

53

Midazolam
Contraindications

KSAR or hypersensitivity

54

Midazolam
Precautions

Severe respiratory distress in COPD
Myasthenia graves
MS
Use reduced dose for:
- elderly
- chronic renal failure
- congestive cardiac failure
- shock

55

Midazolam
Side effects

Hypotension
Respiratory depression - especially when used with other respiratory depressants

56

Midazolam
Adult dosages for generalised or focal seizures

Nasal, IM (ACP1, ACP2, CCP)
>70 years 2.5mg
Repeat every 10 min
Total max, 10mg

IV/IO (CCP)
Same as above, every 5 min

57

Morphine
Indications

Significant pain
Autonomic dysreflexia (SPB >160)
Sedation for maintenance of established LMA/ETT

58

Morphine
Contraindications

KSAR or hypersensitivity
Renal failure

59

Morphine
Precautions

Elderly
Hypotension
Known narcotic addiction
Respiratory tract burns
Respiratory depression/failure
Concurrent MAOI therapy
Cardiac chest pain

60

Morphine
Side effects

Pin point pupils
Bradycardia
Hypotension
Nausea/vomiting
Drowsiness
Respiratory depression

61

Morphine
Onset, Duration, half-life

Onset - IM 5-10 min, IV 2-5 min
Duration - 1-2 hours
Half-life - 2 hours

62

Morphine
Dosages for significant pain

IM (ACP1, ACP2, CCP)
>70 years 2.5-5mg
Repeat at up to 5mg every 10 min
Max dose 10mg
70 years 2.5mg
Repeat at 2.5mg every 5 min
Max dose 10mg

63

Morphine
Dosages for autonomic dysreflexia

.

64

Naloxone
Indications

Respiratory depression secondary to administration of narcotic drugs

65

Naloxone
Contraindications

KSAR or hypersensitivity

66

Naloxone
Precautions

Pre-existing cardiac disease

67

Aspirin Contraindications

KSAR
Chest pain associated with psychostimulant OD
Bleeding or clotting disorders (e.g. Haemophilia)
Current GI bleed or peptic ulcer
Patient

67

Ondansetron Indications

Nausea and/or vomiting
Prophylactic for patient presenting with ACS

68

Ondansetron contraindications

KSAR to ondansetron or other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists
Congenital long QT syndrome
Patient

69

Ondansetron adult dosages

IM (ACP1, ACP2, CCP)
4-8 mg - total max 8mg
IV (ACP2, CCP)
4-8 mg - total max 8mg