Flashcards in Male Repro Deck (92):
8 examples of clinical relevancy of male anatomy
Cryptorchidism (hereditary)-unilateral or bilateral
Posthitis snake bite. Persistent frenulum
Ectopic ureter/patent urachus
Bladder stones (calculi)
Prostatic hyperplasia/inflammation and cysts (PBH)
Other terms for neutering
Benefits of neutering
Dog is fertile but there is a tendency for this to be inherited. Males possessing this should not be bred
Transmissible venereal tumor
-common in what age and sex
Common in 3-6 mo old dogs
Females affected 8x more frequently than males
Urachus is a tube that connects the fetal urinary bladder with the allantois during fetal life....
If problem, urine can leak out of umbilicus
X-ray general positioning for pelvis
Frog-legged projection (extended hip)
Frog-legged projection good for
View of hip and pelvic inlet
Pelvic outlet boundaries
Lateral:ST ligament and muscles of pelvic diaphragm (dog)
Tom penis orientation and phenotype
Caudally directed penis (flaccid)
Cranally directed during copulation
Keratinized spines (induce ovulation in the queen). Regress by castration.
Dog vs Cat
Cat=vertical/close to anus
Dog vs Cat
Dog vs Cat accessory sex gland
Paired gonads make
Male gametes (spermatozoa) and hormones
Paired duct system
Epididymis and ductus deferens
-Convey exocrine products to urethra
Accessory sex glands
Contribute to bulk of semen (seminal fluid)
Serves for passage of both urine and semen
-Deposits semen within female repro tract
Skin adaption (testis)
Skin adaption (penis)
Orientation of testicles in dog
Horizontal with cranial pole facing cranially
Orientatin of testicles in cat
Vertical with cranial pole facing ventrally
Function of the testes
Produces spermatozoa and male sex hormones (testosterone)
Function of scrotum
Protects and supports testis
Regulates testicular temperature (sweat glands)
What are the testicular layers?
Extension of Peritoneal cavity
What makes up the scrotal wall?
Spermatic fascia/Scrotal fascia
What makes up the parietal peritoneum in testes?
Parietal vaginal tunic
What makes up the extension of the peritoneal cavity of the testes?
What makes up the visceral peritoneum of the testes?
Visceral vaginal tunic
What makes up the testicular capsule?
Tunica Albunigena testis
What makes up the scrotal fascia?
External spermatic fascia
Internal spermatic fascia
What is the time frame of testicular descent?
Starts about day 3 after birth
Completes about day 10
What are some exceptions of testicular descent time frame?
Elephants, rhinos, seals, crocodiles, whales and dolphins, birds
What are some clinical significant cases of testicular descent?
Cryptorchidism- hidden testis within the abdomen or inguinal canal
What helps the testes descend to the scrotum?
Explain the development of testes
Develop behind the kidneys and descend to scrotum after birth via help of gubernaculum testis
What hormone is involved with testicular descent that helps with enlargement of testes?
Insulin-like factor 3 (descendine)
T/F Testis and gubernaculum passes the inguinal canal
What are the 3 remnants of the gubernaculum
Proper ligament of the testis
Ligament of the tail of the epididymus
Scrotal ligament (dartos to external scrotal fascia)
What is the temperature for spermatogenesis?
At about 5 degrees F of core body temp
T/F Spermatogenesis is positively affected in crptorchid testis
T/F Hormonal function of spermatogenesis is not affected by temperature
What are structures involved in testicular thermoregulation
Pampiniform plexus (counter current)
What is the site of final maturation and storage of sperm
What connects the testis with ductus deferens
What are 3 parts of the epidiymis
What is used in perineal hernias to prevent bladder retro flexion
What is the diverticulum of peritoneum present in both sexes
What does the vaginal process cover in males? What is it called?
Covers spermatic cord
Called vaginal tunic
What are some contents of the vaginal tunic
Testicular lymph vessels
Autonomic n (sympathetic)
Visceral vaginal tunic
What is the structure called where the testicular v wraps around the testicular a
What are the parts of the visceral vaginal tunic
What makes up the spermatic cord?
Veins of pampiniform plexus
What are structures that pass thru inguinal canal?
Vaginal tunic (and contesnts of spermatic cord)
External pudendal a and v
What is the primary copulatory organ and what does it do?
Penis-ejects semen and urine
What are the 3 regions of the penis
The root of the penis includes
2 crura (ischiatic tuberosity) +bulb of the penis
The body of the penis expands from
The ends of the crura to glans
What are the 2 parts of the glans penis
Pars longa glandis
What are the penis erectile tissues
Of the penis erectile tissues, which are paired dorsal bodies?
T/F Corpus spongiosum has paired ventral body
What is the corpus cavernosum surrounded by
Tunica albuginea penis
What does the corpus spongiosum contain
Spongy urethra and expands distally at the glans
What is the distal 3-4 inches of the CCP
T/F The tom has an os penis that is poorly developed
What is the sheath of skin that surrounds and protects the penis
What makes up the prepuce
outer lamina (haired)
What does the inner lamina of the prepuce contain
What are the accessory sex glands of the dog
Ampullary gland (ampulla of the ductus deferens)
What are the accessory sex glands of the tom
What is the importance of the bulbourethral gland in cats?
Landmark for perineal urethrostomy
What is the importance of the retractor penis in cats f
Perineal urethrostomy in cats
What are the two parts of the urethra?
T/F Male dog has long pre-prostatic part of urethra
What is the structure of the urethra located in the prostate?
What is a common urethral obstruction problem for dogs
Urethral calculi- behind os penis
What is a common urethral obstruction problem for toms
Urethral plug- at tip of penis
What nerve helps with erection
What nerves helps with ejaculation?
What nerve stimulates muscles of the urogenital triangle
What nerve stimulates erection and ejaculation
Is the pudendal nerve somatic or motor
WHere does the pudendal n originate
What nerves stimulates sensation with the glans penis
What muscles are involved in erections in male and female
Constrictor vestibuli (female)
What muscle in female is involved with coital tie
Coital tie Constrictor vestibuli
What are hemodynamic changes during erection?
Increased arterial blood inflow
Decreased venous outflow
The pressure from erections stem from
Engorged vestibular bulb
Constrictor vestibuli m
What is the mechanism of erection?
1st stage coitus
"The Turn"- discourages detumescence
Second stage coitus: encourages uterine rather than vaginal insemination