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Flashcards in Male Repro Deck (92):
1

8 examples of clinical relevancy of male anatomy

Neutering
Cryptorchidism (hereditary)-unilateral or bilateral
Penile tumors/cysts/hypospadias
Posthitis snake bite. Persistent frenulum
Ectopic ureter/patent urachus
Bladder stones (calculi)
Hypospadias
Prostatic hyperplasia/inflammation and cysts (PBH)

2

Other terms for neutering

Castration

Orchiectomy

Orchidectomy

3

Benefits of neutering

Population control

Medical benefits

Behavioral modification

4

Unilateral cryptorchidism

Dog is fertile but there is a tendency for this to be inherited. Males possessing this should not be bred

5

Penile TVT

Transmissible venereal tumor
-Cauliflower-like

6

Ectopic ureter
-common in what age and sex

Common in 3-6 mo old dogs

Females affected 8x more frequently than males

7

Patent urachus

Urachus is a tube that connects the fetal urinary bladder with the allantois during fetal life....

If problem, urine can leak out of umbilicus

8

X-ray general positioning for pelvis

Ventro-dorsal projection

Lateral projection

Frog-legged projection (extended hip)

9

Frog-legged projection good for

View of hip and pelvic inlet

10

Pelvic outlet boundaries

Dorsal:Cd1
Ventral:Ischial arch
Lateral:ST ligament and muscles of pelvic diaphragm (dog)

11

Tom penis orientation and phenotype

Caudally directed penis (flaccid)
Cranally directed during copulation

Keratinized spines (induce ovulation in the queen). Regress by castration.

12

Dog vs Cat
Scrotum/testes orientation

Cat=vertical/close to anus

Dog=horizontal

13

Dog vs Cat
Flaccid penis

Cat=faces caudally

Dog=faces cranially

14

Dog vs Cat accessory sex gland

Cat=prostate/bulbourethral glands

Dog=Prostate-ampullary glands

15

Paired gonads make

Male gametes (spermatozoa) and hormones

16

Paired duct system

Epididymis and ductus deferens
-Convey exocrine products to urethra

17

Accessory sex glands

Contribute to bulk of semen (seminal fluid)

18

Male urethra

Serves for passage of both urine and semen

19

Penis

Copulatory organ
-Deposits semen within female repro tract

20

Scrotum

Skin adaption (testis)

21

Prepuce (sheath)

Skin adaption (penis)

22

Orientation of testicles in dog

Horizontal with cranial pole facing cranially

23

Orientatin of testicles in cat

Vertical with cranial pole facing ventrally

Caudal pole-->Anus

24

Function of the testes

Produces spermatozoa and male sex hormones (testosterone)

25

Function of scrotum

Protects and supports testis

Regulates testicular temperature (sweat glands)

26

What are the testicular layers?

Scrotal wall

Partietal peritoneum

Extension of Peritoneal cavity

Visceral peritoneum

Testicular capsule

27

What makes up the scrotal wall?

Skin

Tunica dartos

Spermatic fascia/Scrotal fascia

28

What makes up the parietal peritoneum in testes?

Parietal vaginal tunic

29

What makes up the extension of the peritoneal cavity of the testes?

Vaginal cavity

30

What makes up the visceral peritoneum of the testes?

Visceral vaginal tunic

31

What makes up the testicular capsule?

Tunica Albunigena testis

32

What makes up the scrotal fascia?

External spermatic fascia

Internal spermatic fascia

33

What is the time frame of testicular descent?

Starts about day 3 after birth

Completes about day 10

34

What are some exceptions of testicular descent time frame?

Elephants, rhinos, seals, crocodiles, whales and dolphins, birds

35

What are some clinical significant cases of testicular descent?

Cryptorchidism- hidden testis within the abdomen or inguinal canal

Inguinal hernias

36

What helps the testes descend to the scrotum?

Gubernaculum testis

37

Explain the development of testes

Develop behind the kidneys and descend to scrotum after birth via help of gubernaculum testis

38

What hormone is involved with testicular descent that helps with enlargement of testes?

Insulin-like factor 3 (descendine)

39

T/F Testis and gubernaculum passes the inguinal canal

True

40

What are the 3 remnants of the gubernaculum

Proper ligament of the testis

Ligament of the tail of the epididymus

Scrotal ligament (dartos to external scrotal fascia)

41

What is the temperature for spermatogenesis?

At about 5 degrees F of core body temp

42

T/F Spermatogenesis is positively affected in crptorchid testis

F

Negatively affected

43

T/F Hormonal function of spermatogenesis is not affected by temperature

T

44

What are structures involved in testicular thermoregulation

Scrotum-sweat glands

Pampiniform plexus (counter current)

Tunica dartos

Cremaster m

45

What is the site of final maturation and storage of sperm

Epididymis

46

What connects the testis with ductus deferens

Epididymis

47

What are 3 parts of the epidiymis

head

body

tail

48

What is used in perineal hernias to prevent bladder retro flexion

ductus deferens

49

What is the diverticulum of peritoneum present in both sexes

Vaginal process

50

What does the vaginal process cover in males? What is it called?

Covers spermatic cord

Called vaginal tunic

51

What are some contents of the vaginal tunic

Pampiniform plexus

Ductus deferens

Testicular lymph vessels

Autonomic n (sympathetic)

Visceral vaginal tunic

52

What is the structure called where the testicular v wraps around the testicular a

Pampiniform plexus

53

What are the parts of the visceral vaginal tunic

Mesoductus deferns

Mesorchium

54

What makes up the spermatic cord?

Veins of pampiniform plexus

Testicular a

Ductus deferns

55

What are structures that pass thru inguinal canal?

Vaginal tunic (and contesnts of spermatic cord)

Cremaster m

External pudendal a and v

Genitofemoral n

56

What is the primary copulatory organ and what does it do?

Penis-ejects semen and urine

57

What are the 3 regions of the penis

Root
Body
Glans

58

The root of the penis includes

2 crura (ischiatic tuberosity) +bulb of the penis

59

The body of the penis expands from

The ends of the crura to glans

60

What are the 2 parts of the glans penis

Bulbus glandis

Pars longa glandis

61

What are the penis erectile tissues

Corpus cavernosum

Corpus spongiosum

62

Of the penis erectile tissues, which are paired dorsal bodies?

corpus cavernosum

63

T/F Corpus spongiosum has paired ventral body

F

Unpaired

64

What is the corpus cavernosum surrounded by

Tunica albuginea penis

65

What does the corpus spongiosum contain

Spongy urethra and expands distally at the glans

66

What is the distal 3-4 inches of the CCP

os penis

Ossified

67

T/F The tom has an os penis that is poorly developed

T

68

What is the sheath of skin that surrounds and protects the penis

Prepuce

69

What makes up the prepuce

preputial ostium

outer lamina (haired)

inner lamina

fornix

preputial cavity

70

What does the inner lamina of the prepuce contain

Lymphoid follicles

Preputial glands

71

What are the accessory sex glands of the dog

Prostate

Ampullary gland (ampulla of the ductus deferens)

72

What are the accessory sex glands of the tom

Prostate

Bublourethral gland

73

What is the importance of the bulbourethral gland in cats?

Landmark for perineal urethrostomy

74

What is the importance of the retractor penis in cats f
or surgery?

Perineal urethrostomy in cats

75

What are the two parts of the urethra?

Intra-pelvic urethra

2-Penile urethra

76

T/F Male dog has long pre-prostatic part of urethra

F

Tom

77

What is the structure of the urethra located in the prostate?

Urethral crest

Colliculus seminalis

78

What is a common urethral obstruction problem for dogs

Urethral calculi- behind os penis

79

What is a common urethral obstruction problem for toms

Urethral plug- at tip of penis

80

What nerve helps with erection

Pelvic

81

What nerves helps with ejaculation?

Hypogastric

82

What nerve stimulates muscles of the urogenital triangle

pudendal

83

What nerve stimulates erection and ejaculation

pedudenal

84

Is the pudendal nerve somatic or motor

Both

85

WHere does the pudendal n originate

S1-S3

86

What nerves stimulates sensation with the glans penis

Dorsal n

87

What muscles are involved in erections in male and female

Constrictor vestibuli (female)

Ischiourethralis (male)

88

What muscle in female is involved with coital tie

Coital tie Constrictor vestibuli

89

What are hemodynamic changes during erection?

Increased arterial blood inflow

Decreased venous outflow

90

The pressure from erections stem from

Engorged vestibular bulb

Constrictor vestibuli m

91

What is the mechanism of erection?

1st stage coitus

"The Turn"- discourages detumescence

Second stage coitus: encourages uterine rather than vaginal insemination

92

What is the coital tie?

Maximal engorement of bulbus glandis
-The system becomes closed
-This makes the penis hard and firm and capable of intromission and coitus