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Flashcards in Male reproductive tract Deck (59)
1

What is the definition of cryptorchidism?

  • Failure of either testicle to descend
    • Monorchidism--absence of one testicle
    • Anorchidism--absence of both testicles

2

What are the characteristics of cryptorchid testicles?

  • Sterile
  • Suppress spermatogenesis in normal testicle
  • Highly prone to neoplastic transformation
  • Often atrophied

3

What age should testicles be descended?

  • Usually descended by 30-40 days
  • Anecdotally delayed in some breeds
  • Unequivocal diagnosis after 6 months

4

T/F: Cryptorchidism is genetically transmitted

TRUE

5

How do you find prescrotal testicles?

  • Usually palpable in SQ
  • Between inguinal ring and scrotum
  • To remove, incise directly over testicle

6

How do you find inguinal and abdominal testicles?

  • Abdominal U/S to locate
  • Exploratory laparotomy
  • To remove abdominal testicle--caudal celiotomy incision
    • Skin incision adjacent to prepuce
    • Divide preputial muscle, vessel
    • Midline incision
    • Follow testicular artery or vas deferens

7

How is testicular torsion diagnosed?

  • More common with abdominal testicles
  • Clinical signs vary
    • Mild signs (anorexia, lethargy)
    • Acute abdomen (marked pain, shock)
  • Diagnosis by U/S, palpation

8

T/F: Testicular torsion is fatal without surgical treatment

TRUE

Surgical emergency!

9

T/F: Prognosis of testicular torsion is poor, even after surgery

FALSE

Prognosis good after surgery

10

Are cryptorchid testicles prone to neoplastic transformation?

YES

11

Can neoplastic testicles be functional?

YES

  • Feminism syndrome--sertoli cell
    • Alopecia, prostate disease, gynecomastia
    • Bone marrow suppression--poor prognosis
  • Testosterone--interstitial cell
    • Perineal hernia
    • Perianal adenoma/adenocarcinoma

12

What staging workup should be performed with testicular neoplasia?

  • CBC/chem/UA
  • 3-view thoracic rads to check for metastasis
  • Abdominal rads/ultrasound to check for metastasis

13

What is the likelihood of metastatic disease in canine testicular neoplasia?

Metastasis is rare (<10%)

14

Which surgical procedures are recommended for treatment of un-metastasized neoplasia?

Bilateral castration with scrotal ablation (complete removal of the scrotum)

15

What is the prognosis with surgical treatment of un-metastasized neoplasia?

If no mets, surgery may be curative

16

What is scrotal ablation?

Complete removal of the scrotum

17

T/F: Scrotal ablation requires castration

TRUE

18

What is hypospadias?

  • Incomplete formation of the penile urethra
  • Most common developmental anomaly of the external male genitalia

19

What species is hypospadias most common in? What are the signs?

  • Most common in Boston Terriers
  • Signs dependent on location
    • Minimal signs
    • Urine scalding

20

What is paraphimosis?

Inability to retract penis into prepuce

21

What are the congenital causes of paraphimosis? What are the acquired causes?

  • Congenital 
    • Narrowed orifice
    • Shortened prepuce
  • Acquired
    • Trauma
    • Infection
    • Priapism (persistent and painful erection)

22

What are the medical treatments for paraphimosis?

  • Lube 
  • Hyperosmolar solutions--reduce swelling
  • Cold/heat
  • Prognosis dependent on duration

23

What is phallopexy?

  • Surgical treatment for paraphimosis--recurrent cases
    • Paired incision made in mucosa
    • Dorsal midline of the penis
    • Dorsal midline of the prepuce
    • Close defects to each other--tack the penis into the prepuce
    • 3-0 or 4-0 absorbable monofilament
    • Simple interrupted or continuous pattern
    • If there is necrosis of the penis you will have to amputate 

24

What procedure is indicated for tumors of the penis?

  • Penile amputation
    • Indicated for most causes of trauma or neoplasia
    • Resection dependent on location/extent of disease

25

What are the common tumor types arising from the penis?

  • TVT--not usually treated surgically
  • Papilloma
  • Squamous cell
  • Mast cell tumor

26

T/F: TVT is not treated surgically

TRUE

27

T/F: Preputial MCT's are the least malignant MCT sites

FALSE

 

28

What are the 2 components necessary for reconstruction of the prepuce?

Epithelial surface (local, haired skin)

Mucosal surface (usually oral cavity)

29

What are the PE findings and clinical signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)?

  • Normal aging change
  • Clinical signs
    • dyschezia (difficult or painful defecation) 

30

How do you diagnose BPH?

Palpation and U/S

  • Palpation--symmetrically enlarged, pain-free prostate
  • U/S shows characteristic homogenous enlargement of prostate

 

31

How do you differentiate BPH from other prostatic disease?

  • Differentiate based on palpation and U/S
  • All looks very uniform, unlike neoplastic conditions

32

How is BPH treated?

Castration

33

What are the 2 components in the etiology of prostatitis?

  • Ascending infection from the urethra (E. coli most common organism)
  • Pre-existing BPH required

34

What are the clinical signs of prostatitis?

  • Dyschezia
  • Pain on urination/defecation
  • Purulent penile discharge
  • Signs of illness: anorexia, lethargy, fever
  • Severe cases: septic shock, peritonitis 

35

How do you differentiate prostatitis from other prostatic disease based on ultrasound and palpation findings?

  • Ultrasound
    • Heterogenous prostate
    • Pathognomonic flocculent fluid appearance
  • Rectal palpation
    • Bilobed, symmetrical prostate
    • Prostate very painful
    • Palpate carefully, do not rupture

36

What are the ramifications of severe cases of prostatitis?

  • Might need aggressive resuscitation 
  • MIght need hospitalization
  • Will have to go into abdomen to address the problem

37

What is the surgical treatment for mild cases of prostatitis?

  • Systemic antibiotics
  • Fluid support
  • Castration

38

What is omentalization of the prostate?

Bringing omentum into or through abscess cavity

Omentum improves drainage

39

What is the typical signalment of a dog with prostatic cysts?

Older, intact male dogs

40

What are the clinical signs of a dog with prostatic cysts?

  • Large, discrete mass in caudal abdomen
  • May be asymptomatic--incidental finding

41

How do you differentiate prostatic cysts from other prostatic diseases based on ultrasound and clinical signs?

  • "Double bladder" on ultrasound
  • Fluid aspiration
    • Brown, watery fluid
    • May become secondarily infected

42

What procedure is indicated for smaller cysts or with limited attachment?

Surgical resection

43

Which procedure is indicated with large cysts or with capsular/urethral communication?

Partial resection and omentalization

44

T/F: Castration is indicated with any prostatic cyst

TRUE

45

What is the prognosis for treatment of prostatic cysts?

Good

46

Can surgery for the treatment of prostatic cysts result in urinary incontinence?

NO

Urinary incontinence is due to the cyst, NOT the surgery

Cyst causes anatomic changes in the urethra

47

What is the most common type of prostatic neoplasia?

  • Usually malignant
    • Adenocarcinoma, various subtypes
    • 80% havfe metastasis on necropsy

48

T/F: Most patients with prostatic neoplasia have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis

TRUE

49

What is the effect of castration on the incidence of and prognosis for prostatic neoplasia?

  • Increased incidence
  • Increased risk of metastasis
  • Castration neither palliative nor effective

50

What are the clinical signs compatible with prostatic neoplasia?

  • Dysuria
  • Hematuria
  • Urinary retention
  • Dyschezia--renal compression
  • Wt. loss, lethargy, pain
  • Lameness common due to bone metastasis

51

Why is surgical treatment not typically pursued for prostatic neoplasia treatment?

Not an easy or straightforward procedure

Will usually introduce complications like incontinence

52

What is the palliative treatment for prostatic neoplasia?

Tube cystotomy or urethral stent

53

What is ligated and divided during vasectomy?

Prescrotal incision-->little incision in prepuce-->incise down to spermatic cord

Double ligate ductus deferens

54

Why does a vasectomy have no effect on testosterone-related disease?

Vasectomy only affects fertility

(Causes animals to 'fire blanks')

55

T/F: When neutering a cryptorchid patient, you should always remove the abnormal testicle first

TRUE

56

T/F: When ligating a testicle after testicular torsion, you should de-rotate the testicle prior to ligation

FALSE

Do NOT de-rotate the testicle

57

What are the indications for surgical treatment of paraphimosis?

  • Recurrent condition
  • Small diameter preputial opening
  • Necrosis

58

How do you surgically treat congenital paraphimosis?

  • Enlarge preputial orifice
  • Advance prepuce
  • Partial penile amputation may be necessary 

59

How do you surgically treat acquired paraphimosis?

  • Treat underlying condition
  • Castration if intact (esp. for priapism)
  • Phallopexy if persistent
  • Penile amputation if necrosis present