Male UG Embryology (Week 6--Trelease) Flashcards Preview

Block 3: GI, Endocrine, Reproductive > Male UG Embryology (Week 6--Trelease) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Male UG Embryology (Week 6--Trelease) Deck (36):
1


What are the 3 overlapping kidney systems that form during development?


1) Pronephros

2) Mesonephros

3) Metanephros

Note: these are from intermediate mesoderm

2


Pronephros

 

Solid cell groups in cervical region form nephrotomes (vestigial excretory units)

At the top (rostral)

Pronephric system disappears by end of 4th week (disappear before next caudal, mesonephric ones, form)

3


Mesonephros


Between pronephros and metanephros

Start forming early 4th week

Develop into glomeruli, Bowman's capsules, renal corpuscules

Longitudinal collecting duct behind develops into Wolffian (mesonephric) duct, which empties into cloaca

Middle of 2nd month, formed 2 developing gonads

4


Metanephros


Metanephros is what creates entire definitive kidney (pro and mesonephros break down)

Uretic bud forms collecting system: ureter, renal pelvis, major calyces then subdivides to form minor calyces then renal pyramids, collecting tubules (from week 5 to month 5)

Metanephric tissue cap (metanephric mesoderm) forms nephron: glomeruli, Bowman's capsules, joins collecting duct of uretic bud to form DCT, loop of Henle, PCT

5


When are nephrons made?


From week 6 until birth

1,000,000 nephrons per kidney

6


What is an epithelial to mesenchymal transition in kidney development?


When metanephric ureteric bud epithelium interacts with mesenchyme of metanephric tissue cap (blastema)

7


When does the definitive metanephric kidney become functional?

Week 12

Urine is passed into amniotic cavity/fluid, recycled through kidney when it's swallowed

8


Renal developmental defects


Wilms' tumor (nephroblastoma)

Renal dysplasias and agenesis (spectrum): multicystic dysplastic kidney, renal agenesis, congenital polycystic kidney

Bifid ureters, some with additional abnormal exit points (into vagina or directly into urethra)

9


Where does kidney move?


Starts out in pelvic region but then shifts upward (cranially) and receives supply from aortic branches along the way

10


Abnormal kidney position and shape


Accessory renal arteries that fail to detatch during ascent

If kidneys fail to pass through form of umbilical arteries, can have pelvic kidneys or fusion and horseshoe kidney

11


What does the cloaca divide into?


Anterior urogenital sinus and posterior anal canal

(during weeks 4 through 7)

Partitioning formed by urorectal septum

Perineal body is formed by inferior tip of urorectal septum

12


How is the bladder formed?


Upper/largest part of UG sinus forms bladder, which is initially continuous with the allantois

13


What happens to the allantois?


Originally attached to bladder, but then is obliterated to form urachus which connects top of bladder to umbilicus (median umpilical ligament in adult)

14


How is the male urethra formed?


Narrow pelvic part of UG sinus gives rise to prostatic urethra and membranous urethra

Note: third phallic part of UG sinus develops differently depending on sex

15


What layer does the epithelium of the bladder and urethra come from?


Endoderm

Derived from cloaca

16


Mesonephric contribution to ureters and ejaculatory ducts


Caudal portion of mesonephric ducts incorporated into wall of bladder

Ureters form as buds of distal mesonephric ducts but then move upward (cranially) and have separate attachment to bladder from mesonephric ducts

Mesonephric ducts become ejaculatory ducts

17


What layer do the ureters, mesonephric ducts, trigone of the bladder come from?


Mesoderm

18


What layer does the surrounding connective tissue around the urethra come from?


Splanchnic mesoderm

19


Where does the prostate arise from?


Epithelium of prostatic urethra in late month 3

(comes from splanchnic mesoderm)

20


Bladder and urethra developmental defects


Urachal fistula, cyst, sinus: persistence of remnants of allantois

Exstrophy of the bladder: ventral body wall defect exposing bladder mucosa, with epispadias and open urinary tract

Exstrophy of the cloaca: severe ventral body wall defect (inhibited midline migration of mesoderm) with lack of tail fold progression, resulting in exstrophy of bladder, imperforate anus, omphalocele, spinal defects

21


Which gene is most important in determining sexual dimorphism?


SRY gene of Y chromosome: a transcription factor (testis determining factor)

22


When do gonads acquire male or female characteristics?


Week 7

23


General gonad development for males and females


1) Longitudinal genital (gonadal) ridges formed by proliferating epithelium and underlying mesenchyme medial to caudal (bottom) mesonephros

2) Primirive germ cells migrate into ridges from endoderm of yolk sac near allantois

3) Germ cells induce gonad development and form primitive sex cords

24


Development of testis


Primitive sex cords continue to grow and penetrate deep medulla to form medullary (testis) cords

Rete testis form near hilum

Tunica albuginea grows

Month 4 testis cords become horseshoe shaped, contain germ cells, sustenancular cells of Sertoli, interstitial cells of Leydig

25


What happens to testis cords at puberty?


Before puberty the testis cords remain solid, then hollow to form seminiferous tubules and join rete testis tubules then ductuli efferentes (go into ductus deferens)

26


What layers are the Sertoli and Leydig cells derived from?


Sertoli derived from surface epithelium

Leydig derived from gonadal ridge mesoderm

27


What do the Wolffian (mesonephric) ducts become?


Vas deferens (ductus deferens)

28


What does SRY do?

1) Induces mesonephric tubules to penetrate gonadal ridge and induce differentiation

2) Induces Sertoli and Leydig cells to differentiate

29


Early (indifferent) genital ducts


All fetuses have 2 pairs of genital ducts: mesonephric (Wolffian) and paramesonephric (Mullerian)

Paramesonephric duct opens into abdominal cavity on top (cranially) and crosses over mesonephric duct below (caudally)

30


Male genital ducts


Form from persistent mesonephric ducts

Efferent ductules form when mesonephric excretory tubules connect with rete testis

Ductus epididymis forms, ductus deferens forms

Note: vestigial paradidymus forms where paragenital tubules do NOT join rete

31


Indifferent external genitalia


Mesenchyme from primitive streak migrates to form cloacal folds in week 3

Genital tubercle forms on top (cranial) of cloacal membrane

Get urethral folds (anterior) and anal folds (posterior)

Genital swellings on either side of urethral folds

Week 6, you CANNOT distinguish genitalial sex

32


How are male external genitalia formed?

Fetal testes secrete androgens and cause elongation in genital tubercle to form phallus

Urethral folds pulled around urethral groove

Urethral plate forms from endodermal epithelium of urethral groove

Urethral folds close over plate to form penile urethra (still doesn't exted all the way to tip

External urethral meatus (distal part of urethra) formed by epithelial canalization by ectodermal cells from glans

Genital swellings move down (caudally) as they develop and become scrotal sacs separated by septum

33

Genitalia developmental defects

Closure defects: hypospadias, epispadias, exstrophy of bladder, micropenis, bifid penis

Kleinfelter's syndrome (47, XXY), infertility, gynecomastia, underandrogenization

34

Indifferent gonad descent


In late month 2, gonad and mesonephros is attached to posterior abdominal wall by UG mesentary

Mesonephros disappears and gonadal mesentary becomes caudal genital ligament

Gubernaculum extends from gonads and ends in inguinal abdominal wall

35

How do the testes descend?


Gubernaculum regresses and intraabdominal pressure increases

Processus vaginalis follows course of gubernaculum and is pulled into scrotum--covers testes as viscreal layer then parietal layer of tunica vaginalis

36


What layers are outside parietal layer of tunica vaginalis?


Internal spermatic fascia, cremasteric fascia, external spermatic fascia

(transversalis fascia, internal abdominal oblique and external abdominal oblique respectively)