Matching Flashcards Preview

bio > Matching > Flashcards

Flashcards in Matching Deck (40):
1

Acetylcholine

neurotransmitter, activates muscle, PNS and CNS, opens Na+ channels

2

Aldosterone

causes the seminiferous tubules to produce inhibin

3

ATP synthase

enzyme, free energy of the electrochemical gradient is reduced, synthesis of ATP to ADP, 4 H+ to produce 1 ATP, creates ATP from ADP + P

4

Beta pleated sheet

an example of a secondary structure

5

Bond energy

measure of the stability of a chemical bond

6

Calcitonin

controls level of calcium in blood

7

Chemiosmosis

a process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme

8

Condensation reaction

results in the formation of water

9

Dendrites

short, branching terminals that receive impulses and relay the impulses to the cell body

10

DNA polymerase I

proofread by excising incorrectly paired nucleotides, removes RNA primers and replaces them with the appropriate deoxyribosenucleotides during DNA replication

11

DNA polymerase III

responsible for building new DNA strands during replication, enzyme responsible for synthesizing complementary strands of DNA during DNA replication, 5’ to 3’ direction

12

Entropy

randomness or disorder in a collection of objects or energy

13

Free energy

energy that can do useful work

14

Glial cells

support neurons by nourishing them, removing wastes, defending against infection, function as structural support cells

15

Gyrase

the bacterial enzyme that relives tension produced by the unwinding of DNA during replication

16

Helicase

unwinds DNA

17

Hydrolysis reaction

requires water to proceed

18

Insulin

increases uptake of glucose from the blood - decrease in blood sugar

19

Isomerization

one molecule is formed into another, same chemical formula but different arrangement of atoms

20

Lactate fermentation

pyruvate gets converted into lactic acid

21

Lagging strand

new DNA strand synthesized in fragments

22

Leading strand

new DNA strand that is synthesized continuously

23

Ligase

links sugars and phosphates together

24

Light reactions

use light to generate ATP and NADPH2, Calvin cycle

25

London dispersion forces

attraction between noble gases

26

Metabolism

sum of all anabolic and catabolic processes in a cell/organism

27

Motor neurons

transmit information from the CNS to effectors (muscles, glands, organs)

28

Myelin sheath

protects neurons and increases the rate of nerve impulse transmission

29

NAD and FAD

electron carriers, bring electrons to the ETC

30

Okazaki fragment

short lengths of DNA produced during synthesis of lagging strand

31

Oxaloacetate

can only be replenished by conversion of pyruvate, pyruvate resynthesizes oxaloacetate, metabolize lipids, Krebs cycle, acetyl-CoA reacts with it to form citrate

32

Photorespiration

Rubisco uses oxygen as a reactant with RuBP, only occurs on hot, dry days, energy is lost, phosphoglycolate converted back into useful molecules

33

Primase

builds RNA primers

34

Progesterone

promotes growth of uterine lining, prevents uterine muscle contractions

35

Pyruvate oxidation

Co2 is removed, NAD+ is reduced, CoA is to the remaining acetyl group, 2 pyruvate molecules formed in glycolysis are transported through two mitochondrial membranes into the matrix

36

RNA primer

a marker to identify the starting point for DNA polymerase III

37

Single-strand binding proteins

keep newly separated strand of DNA apart

38

Substrate-level phosphorylation

the production of ATP as a direct result of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

39

Transition state

phase of a reaction when bonds are breaking (reactants) and forming (products)

40

van der Waals forces

intermolecular bonding, London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole etc.