Mazur Chapter 11: Learning by Observation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mazur Chapter 11: Learning by Observation Deck (24)
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1
Q

Imitation as Instinct

A

McDougall – four-month-old imitate facial expressions

Meltzoff and Moore – 12-21-day-old infant’s copy four gestures
*Parents claimed no prior reinforcement

2
Q

Limitation of Imitation

A

Two-year-olds were taught baseline set of “matching relations”

There were unable to randomly imitate “target matching relations”

3
Q

Social Facilitation

A

Behavior of one organism triggers similar behavior in other [other already knows behavior]

4
Q

Stimulus Enhancement

A

Behavior of model draws attention toward a stimulus behavior

e.g. a Raven sees other ravens playing with Frisbee – later picks for his beta play with

5
Q

True Imitation

A

The copying of behavior that was never learned before

E.g. monkeys learn to throw sand into water to sift out wheat

6
Q

Imitation As Operant Response

A

Dollard and Miller argue that imitation is a special type of operant conditioning

The human that one wants to imitate serves as a discriminative stimulus

The appropriate response is to copy the behavior

Children are reinforced for copying or not copying a “leader” and then continue to either copy or not copy

7
Q

Imitation As a Generalized Operant Response

A

Bandura argues that Dollard and Miller’s research was limited

Their model only showed that the learner observes, immediately copies, and is reinforced

However, children copy parents for lots of things without prior practice of the response and without prior reinforcement

If the child had been previously reinforced for imitating the behaviors of her parents, imitation in this instance is simply generalization

8
Q

Bandura’s Theory of Imitation

A

Consequences toward the model made a difference whether kids imitated behavior

However, when kids were offered candy to hurt the doll, children all three groups produced large and equal amounts of aggressive behavior

*Reinforcement is not necessary for the learning of new behaviors through observation

However, the expectation of reinforcement is essential for the performance of these new behaviors

9
Q

The 4 Processes of Bandura’s Cognitive Theory

[ His alternative to the theory of generalized imitation]

A

Attentional Process

Retentional Process

Motor Reproductive Process

Incentive And Motivational Processes

*The first three processes are all that are needed for an individual to acquire the capability to perform a new behavior

However, this capability will not be reflected in the learner’s behavior without the appropriate incentive

10
Q

Attentional processes

A

The learner must pay attention to the appropriate features of the models behavior if imitation is to occur

11
Q

Retentional Processes

A

Information gained through observation must be retained if imitation is to occur at a later time

Importance of rehearsal

12
Q

Motor Reproductive Processes

A

Learner must be able to translate general knowledge into a coordinated pattern of muscle movements

13
Q

Incentive and Motivational Processes

A

The individual must have an expectation that the performance of a new behavior will produce some type of reinforcement in order to produce the behavior

14
Q

Bandura’s criticism of the Theory of Generalized Imitation

A

It doesn’t indicate why kids imitated the reinforced model

All kids imitated when they were offered a reward

15
Q

Mirror Neurons and Imitation

A

Mirror neurons fire when a person acts, or when a person sees another person acting

16
Q

Achievement Motivation

A

Direct reinforcement and observational learning shape self-discipline and a high achievement motivation

Willingness to work and make sacrifices to obtain long-term goals

Set high standards for oneself and attempt to achieve goals

Study in which children observed bowlers rewarding themselves for different scores

  • children can learn to apply either strict or lenient standards of self-discipline by observing a model
  • numerous learning experiences of a similar type must occur as children observe their parents’ behaviors over a period of many years
  • Besides serving as models, parents may directly reinforce either strictly lenient standards of achievement and self-discipline and their children

17
Q

Aggression

A

Paradox: parents who use the most severe punishment for aggressive behaviors tend to reduce more aggressive children

This seems to suggest that punishment is ineffective

However, the paradox is resolved when it is realized that parents who use physical punishment with their children are providing their children with models of aggressive behavior

18
Q

What Can Be Learned through Observation?

A

Phobias

Drug Use/Addiction

Cognitive Development–Problem-Solving Tasks

Moral Standards

19
Q

Modeling in Behavior Therapy

A

Bandura and Walters – model’s behavior can:

  1. Facilitate responses observer already knows
  2. Produce totally new behaviors
  3. Reduce harmful behaviors
20
Q

Facilitation of Low Probability Behaviors

A

Assertiveness Training – role-playing and modeling

Graduated modeling – simple to complex behaviors

21
Q

Acquisition of New Behaviors: Behavioral skills training

A

Modeling + verbal instructions, prompts, guide practice, feedback

e.g. PCIT

22
Q

Acquisition of New Behaviors: Elimination of Fears and Unwanted Behaviors

A

Graduated Modeling:
E.g. dog phobia at a party – graduated modeling in which children observed a child of their own age engage in more and more demanding interactions with a friendly dog – no difference between the party context in the neutral context

Participant Modeling
The model first performs a behavior related to the phobia, and then the patient imitates the behavior of the model

In each step of the treatment, the patient’s involvement with the object of the phobia becomes more demanding

23
Q

Acquisition of New Behaviors: Video Self-Modeling

A

An increasingly popular technique used by behavior therapists– selected mutism, stuttering, autism etc.

The goal of this technique is to increase performance of desired behaviors by having clients watch themselves correctly perform these behaviors in a video

Videos are edited to remove all examples of errors and inappropriate behaviors, as well as all segments in which the therapist gives assistance

All that remains is a video in which the child was in performing the behavior correctly with no help from anyone else – the goal is to teach only correct, unassisted behaviors

24
Q

Summary

A

Differing theories of imitation:
instinctive
contigency-based
generalized operant response

Bandura’s theory states that four factors determine whether imitative behavior will occur: attentional, retentional, motor abilities, and incentive/motivational processes

Mirror neurons fire when an individual makes response and when the individual see someone else makes a response, supporting the idea that observational learning is a unique type of learning

Observational learning and operant conditioning can either work together or work in opposite directions

e.g. Paradoxical effect of physical punishment for aggressive behavior

Observational learning can also affect the development of phobias, alcohol and drug use, thinking skills, and moral standards

Many different variations on modeling techniques have been used behavior therapy: graduated modeling, participant modeling, and video self-modeling

Through modeling, shy children can learn better social skills, adults can learn to be more assertive, children with autism can be taught to speak, and phobias can be eliminated